New Page 1 In this section you will find answers to the following questions: What is matter? What is it made of? Before we can address the issue of what antimatter is, we should ask ourselves what matter is. The structure of the atom The most basic units of matter that we know of are called fundamental particles. Antimatter is, to all effects and purposes, the same as matter, except for one feature: its electrical charge. Matter and antimatter, a pair of opposites When a particle of matter meets its corresponding antimatter particle, they both disappear. The opposite process is also possible. One may wonder whether it not possible that, far from us, there are galaxies or planets made of antimatter that stay around because they are far removed from matter ones. Are there "anti-galaxies"? The discovery of antimatter is one of the most outstanding scientific events of the twentieth century. Click here to learn more about the discovery of antimatter
Complexity « Tyranny of the Prefrontal Cortex Towards a “Phase Transition” in Anthropology? Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations By Norman Yoffee. New York: Cambridge University Press. Casual readers beware! The “myths” of the archaic state in Norman Yoffee’s title are not the original myths of the early civilizations. That said, there’s plenty of intriguing material about daily life in Mesopotamia in particular that will reward careful reading. Fascinating as that is, the most notable aspect of Yoffee’s book for me is his application of complexity theory to understanding the major transitions in early human history. Yoffee first lays his theoretical foundation, describing a complex adaptive system as one that “cannot be reduced to the ‘sum of its parts’ because the action of some parts is always affecting the action of other parts, so that equilibrium of the entire system is never reached or maintained for very long.” Emergence through self-organization has two directions. Permalink
Contraction and Convergence and Music 'STRINGULARITY' and 'PER-CAPITALISM' - for a 'Well Tempered Climate Accord' An expression of Pythagoras' 'First Law' 'Well-Tempered' Tuning and UNFCCC-compliance with Contraction & Convergence [C&C]. For being In-Time and In-Tune to be in Harmony with Mother Earth and Nature all musicians really do, especially string players, is to 'count' so as to be 'in-tune' and 'in-time'. More about this here Compare Richard Dawkins and Stephen Hawking. 'According to legend, the first mathematical formulation of what we might today call a law of nature dates back to an Ionian named Pythagoras [who] is said to have discovered the numerical relationship between the length of the strings used in musical instruments and the harmonic combinations of the sounds. Here, 'harmonic structure' is discovered as a 'universal law' governing the sub-divisions of a length of vibrating string as a measured and universal 'constant' that is 'in-tune' and 'in-time'. Together these fractions constitute the 'Hemiola'. 1.
Synergetics From WikiEducator Introduction All the content following this section is a snapshot of the Wikipedia entry after I got through editing it, before turning it over to other members of our community to continue improving. I gave the Wikipedia page a boost (it was "a stub" when I took it on). Here's a followup entry where I mention creating this Wikieducator page. I've done a lot more writing on Synergetics elsewhere, including right here on Wikieducator. What is Synergetics? Synergetics is defined by R. "A system of mensuration employing 60-degree vectorial coordination comprehensive to both physics and chemistry, and to both arithmetic and geometry, in rational whole numbers... Here's an abridged list of some of the discoveries Fuller claims for Synergetics (see Controversies below) again quoting directly: Tetrahedral Accounting A chief hallmark of this system of mensuration was its unit of volume: a tetrahedron defined by four closest-packed unit-radius spheres. Starting with Universe Errata R.
The dissipative systems model The theory of dissipative structure upon which the current discussion is based can be treated as the open systems model extended with a capability to continuously impose a revolutionary change or transformation. The theory of dissipative structure Pioneered by the Brussels school of thought in the 1970s (Prigogine, 1976; Nicolis and Prigogine, 1977, 1989; Prigogine and Stengers, 1984), this theory is firmly rooted in physics and chemistry. Nevertheless, it was later applied to urban spatial evolution (Allen and Sanglier, 1978, 1979a, 1979b, 1981), organisational change and transformation (Gemmill and Smith, 1985; Leifer, 1989; Macintosh and Maclean, 1999), changes in small groups and group dynamics (Smith and Gemmill, 1991), and political revolutions and change in political systems (Artigiani, 1987a, 1987b; Byeon, 1999). Dissipative structure in physical systems Order in a non-equilibrium state Figure 11.4. Entropy and sustainability of dissipative systems
Art and Aesthetics (Severyn T. Bruyn) Jacques Attali, professor of economic theory and Counsellor to President François Mitterand, describes the form music takes in terms of prophecy. He argues that new art forms are a prophetic indicator of a major social change, even a revolution. Indeed, new music sounds like “noise” before a revolution. Attali argues that music is one of the stakes in the game of power -- whether that power is a totalitarian government or “the more subtle force of democracy.” Art critic Robert Hughes gives us positive picture on the role of the avant-garde artist. The essence of the avant-garde myth is that the artist is a precursor; the truly significant work of art is the one that prepares the future. How do sociologists make a contribution toward the new criticism of music? Paintings illustrate how contrary emotions and ideas are put into one frame. The method of participant observation in sociology is relevant for the art critic. Painting placed here: Rubens’ “Descent from the Cross”
Dielectric A polarized dielectric material The study of dielectric properties concerns storage and dissipation of electric and magnetic energy in materials. Dielectrics are important for explaining various phenomena in electronics, optics, and solid-state physics. Terminology While the term insulator implies low electrical conduction, dielectric typically means materials with a high polarizability. The latter is expressed by a number called the relative permittivity (also known in older texts as dielectric constant). The term "dielectric" was coined by William Whewell (from "dia-electric") in response to a request from Michael Faraday. A perfect dielectric is a material with zero electrical conductivity. Electric susceptibility The electric susceptibility χe of a dielectric material is a measure of how easily it polarizes in response to an electric field. where is the electric permittivity of free space. The susceptibility of a medium is related to its relative permittivity by . for
Origin of Life - God's Utility Function God's Utility Function Transcript Hi. I'm Tim Tyler, this is a video about God's Utility Function - the idea that biology can be usefully seen as an optimisation process, and that evolutionary change acts so as to maximise some utility function. The problem If you compare the natural evolutionary process with man made genetic algorithms, biological evolution looks remarkably like a gigantic optimisaton process. The question of what the utility function of biology is was raised - and answered - by Richard Dawkins in his 1995 book of River Out Of Eden. He phrased the question as follows: A good way to dramatize our task is to imagine that living creatures were made by a Divine Engineer and try to work it out, by reverse engineering, what the Engineer was trying to maximize: What was God's Utility Function? The answer he gave was "DNA survival". This essay addresses the same question - but gives a totally different answer. Maximum entropy production One true utility function God's Utility Function
Self-Organization Definitions aka Order, Autopoesis, Negentropy, ExtropyLovelock on Negentropy (Inverse Entropy, Negative Entropy) "The great physicist Ludwig Boltzmann expressed the meaning of the second law in an equation of great seemliness and simplicity: S=k(lnP), where S is that strange quantity entropy; k is a constant rightly called the Boltzmann constant; and lnP is the natural logarithm of the probability. It means what it says--the less probable something is, the lower its entropy. The most improbable thing of all, life, is therefore to be associated with the lowest entropy. Schrödinger was not happy to associate something as significant as life with a diminished quantity, entropy. "... "Excretion of entropy" is just a fancy way of expressing the dirty words excrement and pollution. "... A crucial insight that comes from Schrödinger's generalization about life is that living systems have boundaries. -- Lovelock, James: The Ages of Gaia (1988) Dissipative structures are doubly dissipative.
Self-organization Self-organization occurs in a variety of physical, chemical, biological, robotic, social and cognitive systems. Common examples include crystallization, the emergence of convection patterns in a liquid heated from below, chemical oscillators, swarming in groups of animals, and the way neural networks learn to recognize complex patterns. Overview The most robust and unambiguous examples of self-organizing systems are from the physics of non-equilibrium processes. Self-organization is also relevant in chemistry, where it has often been taken as being synonymous with self-assembly. Self-organization usually relies on three basic ingredients: Strong dynamical non-linearity, often though not necessarily involving positive and negative feedbackBalance of exploitation and explorationMultiple interactions Principles of self-organization History of the idea Sadi Carnot and Rudolf Clausius discovered the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the 19th century. Developing views
Self-Organization & Entropy - The Terrible Twins by Chris Lucas "Order is not pressure which is imposed on society from without, but an equilibrium which is set up from within."José Ortega y Gasset, Mirabeau and Politics, 1927 "Freedom and constraint are two aspects of the same necessity, which is to be what one is and no other." Introduction Many people will have heard of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Probable States So, which states are probable exactly ? Order in Context But what exactly is this order ? Entropy and Gasses Does this mean that Entropy is a meaningless concept ? Beyond Ideal Gasses Does this then apply to solids also ? Traditional Entropy, by assuming that ideal gas properties always apply, ignores many of the other constraints (or boundary conditions) that apply to real systems. For liquids we have an intermediate case, the weaker attractions here allow for some motion, but the atoms when moving drag neighbouring atoms along - the liquid flows. Complexity of Information Self-Organization Is this phenomenon widespread ?
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