Earth system science seeks to integrate various fields of academic study to understand the Earth as a system. It considers interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere (geosphere), biosphere, and heliosphere. In 1996, the American Geophysical Union, in cooperation with the Keck Geology Consortium and with support from five divisions within the National Science Foundation, convened a workshop "to define common educational goals among all disciplines in the Earth sciences." In its report, participants noted that, "The fields that make up the Earth and space sciences are currently undergoing a major advancement that promotes understanding the Earth as a number of interrelated systems." Recognizing the rise of this systems approach, the workshop report recommended that an Earth system science curriculum be developed with support from the National Science Foundation. Definition Inspiration in the Gaia theory The programmes have stated the following:
HomeAntonio Busalacchi Professor and Director From the polar ice caps to the deserts of China, from the skies over Oklahoma to the Atlantic Ocean near Northeast Brazil, ESSIC scientists are busy examining the Earth's Systems through the various lenses of their particular specialties. Cutting across the traditional disciplinary boundaries of meteorology, oceanography, geology and geography, ESSIC seeks to better understand how the land, the oceans and the atmosphere react with, and influence, one another. At ESSIC, some of the questions our researchers are exploring are: How do the ocean, atmosphere, and land surfaces interact to induce changes in climate?
Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS)Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS) Updated on March 13, 2014: CO-OPS is planning to turn off OPeNDAP services on the NOS OFS web pages on April 23, 2014. Please use the THREDDS URL and change your scripts if needed. (Please click on the map pins below to access the time series plots) Chesapeake City Currents Chesapeake City Courthouse Point Town Point Grove Neck Shad Battery Pooles Island Upper Chesapeake Range Baltimore Baltimore Key Bridge Tolchester Beach Brewerton Channel Tolchester Front Range Craighill Entrance Annapolis Chesapeake Channel LLB 92 Thomas Point Light Poplar Island Choptank River Entrance Sharps Island Cambridge Cove Point LNG Pier Ocean City Cedar Point Solomons Island Kettle Bottom Bishops Head Piney Point Lewisetta Potomac River Entrance Smith Point Light Rappahannock Shoal Channel Windmill Point Wachapreague Rappahannock Spit Rappahannock Channel Buoy 50 Rappahannock Light Buoy 42 York River E Rear Range Light York Spit Buoy 35 Tue Marshes, York River Yorktown USCG Training Center Map Data
James LovelockJames Ephraim Lovelock, CH, CBE, FRS (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist and futurist who lives in Dorset, England. He is best known for proposing the Gaia hypothesis, which postulates that the biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the capacity to keep our planet healthy by controlling the interconnections of the chemical and physical environment. Biography Career James Lovelock around 1960 A lifelong inventor, Lovelock has created and developed many scientific instruments, some of which were designed for NASA in its program of planetary exploration. In early 1961, Lovelock was engaged by NASA to develop sensitive instruments for the analysis of extraterrestrial atmospheres and planetary surfaces. Lovelock was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1974. On 8 May 2012, he appeared on the Radio Four series "The Life Scientific", talking to Jim al-Khalili about the Gaia hypothesis. CFCs Gaia Nuclear power Climate
Earth spheres WiliThe following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to earth science: Earth's spheres The Earth's spheres are the many "spheres" into which the planet Earth is divided. The four most often recognized are the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere and the geosphere. As a whole, the system is sometimes referred to as an ecosphere. Branches of earth science Geology Geography Soil science Atmospheric science Oceanography Glaciology Glaciology Geoinformatics History of earth science Main article: History of earth science; see also History of geology Earth science topics Main article: List of earth science topics See also List of geoscience organizations References External links
The Language of DegenerationThe Language of Degeneration: Eugenic Ideas in The Time Machine by H. G. Wells and Man and Superman by George Bernard Shaw By Jenny Jopson ‘Given the fact that so much of the eugenicists’ writings read like science fiction…it was inevitable that they should have influenced the literary portrayals of modern life’1 Introduction Wells and Shaw represent two of the foremost intellectuals of their day who were motivated to embrace the doctrine of eugenics by a hope that it could effect social change. The period of the eugenics movement2 produced many novels and plays suffused with the fear of the deterioration of the race and the language of regeneration.3 Of these, The Time Machine and Man and Superman provide the main focus for this study, representing examples of the best-known and most influential of the works of their respective authors. Contexts The perceived degeneration of the race gave extra urgency to these concerns as to the inadequacy of social reform. Science as Saviour
Earth System ScienceEarth System Science In the phrase "Earth system science (ESS)," the key term is "system." A system is a collection of interdependent parts enclosed within a defined boundary. Within the boundary of the earth is a collection of four interdependent parts called "spheres." Earth's spheres include: the lithosphere, which contains all of the cold, hard, solid rock of the planet's crust (surface), the hot semi-solid rock that lies underneath the crust, the hot liquid rock near the center of the planet, and the solid iron core (center) of the planet the hydrosphere, which contains all of the planet's solid, liquid, and gaseous water, the biosphere, which contains all of the planet's living organisms, and the atmosphere, which contains all of the planet's air. These spheres are closely connected. Events can occur naturally, such as an earthquake or a hurricane, or they can be caused by humans, such as an oil spill or air pollution. The double-headed arrows ( In addition to the above four event
How the Living Earth Simulator Will Work"The kings of old knew the weight of their decisions. They knew their every choice sent ripples through the kingdom and that a single ill-timed decree could trigger a series of unstoppable, cascading events. One choice might guarantee a lasting peace, while a dozen others might lead to their own toppled throne. And so these kings turned to augurs and wizards -- people who claimed a special knowledge of future events. "Peer into tomorrow and advise me on today," a king might command. But of course for all their sorceries and prayers, the king's advisers possessed no true insight into future events. If only there were a way to test a decision on a separate, identical world -- a complex model of reality in which even the most catastrophic choices played out in mere simulation. No longer the domain of imagined fantasy, such simulations are now within our grasp, thanks to modern data mining and computer technology.
Gaia hypothesisThe study of planetary habitability is partly based upon extrapolation from knowledge of the Earth's conditions, as the Earth is the only planet currently known to harbour life The Gaia hypothesis, also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle, proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a self-regulating, complex system that contributes to maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. Topics of interest include how the biosphere and the evolution of life forms affect the stability of global temperature, ocean salinity, oxygen in the atmosphere and other environmental variables that affect the habitability of Earth. Introduction Less accepted versions of the hypothesis claim that changes in the biosphere are brought about through the coordination of living organisms and maintain those conditions through homeostasis. Details Regulation of the salinity in the oceans Regulation of oxygen in the atmosphere Processing of CO2