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The National Academies

The National Academies
In the News: Your Inner Fish – A Scientific Adventure Have you ever wondered why people look the way they do? Why our hands and feet have five digits instead of six? Why we stand on two legs instead of four? Follow that adventure now on PBS Darwin's Insights Continue to Inspire the Academy's Work The ideas of Charles Darwin and the concept of evolution by natural selection continue to have a profound influence on modern biology – they permeate almost every area of scientific exploration. In 2009 the National Academy of Sciences joined many other organizations in the international scientific community to celebrate the 'Year of Science,' which commemorated Darwin’s 200th birthday and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his masterwork On the Origin of Species. In 2010, the National Academy of Sciences awarded its most prestigious award, the Public Welfare Medal, to Dr. Related:  EvolutionEvolution Course Resourcesbksubbarao

The Panda's Thumb Evolution of Evolution - 150 Years of Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" Text-only | Flash Special Report Evolution of Evolution - 150 Years of Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" Introduction Charles Darwin Essays Darwin as Ichthyologist: Lessons for Our Future — Daniel Pauly Rethinking the Birdtree of Life — Shannon Hackett & Sushma Reddy What If Darwin Hadn't Written "On the Origin of Species?" Audio Transcripts Interview with Daniel Pauly Interview with Shannon Hackett & Sushma Reddy Video Transcripts Interview with Marsha Richmond Interview with Jim Secord Introduction Evolution of Anthropology Essays Skeletal Morphology — Susan Antón Darwin as Anthropologist, Anthropologists as Darwinians — Ken Weiss Human Evolution's Winding Path — Tim White Audio Transcripts Interview with Susan Antón Video Transcripts Interview with Ken Weiss Interview with Tim White Introduction Evolution of Astromony Essays Is There a Chemical Origin of the Species? Audio Transcripts Interview with Anthony Remijan Introduction Evolution of Biology Introduction Evolution of Geosciences

AIBS Education Office | Resources for Teaching and Learning Biology General Biology Nature of Science EvolutionSustainability General Biology: features issues-based articles written by prominent scientists, accompanying lesson ideas, and related teaching resources for high school and undergraduate biology educators. AAAS Science NetLinks is a guide to standards-based Internet experiences for students. provides a searchable database of resources from BEN Collaborative partner organizations such as AIBS, Ecological Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Botanical Society of America. BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium promotes curriculum innovation by serving a national role as a networking resource for individuals to share, distribute, and enhance cooperation among on-going and future biology education development projects. Nature of Science: Evolution and the Nature of Science Institute. Evolution: - Evolution. Sustainability:

Edwards v. Aguillard [This is the text of the 1987 United States Supreme Court decision striking down a Louisiana law that required if evolution is taught in public schools then creationism must also be taught. This 7-2 decision ended any prospect of public schools in the United States being legally forced to teach explicate creationism. One consequence of this case was that some antievolutionists choose to use the term "intelligent design" instead of "creationism."] The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the court of appeals, which in turn had affirmed the District Court's decision finding the Louisiana act unconstitutional. The decision had Brennan, Marshall, Blackmun, Powell, Stevens, O'Connor, and White on the majority, with Scalia and Rehnquist dissenting. Held Opinion Majority Opinion by Brennan I, II, III (A)(B), IV, V Concurring Opinion by Powell I (A), (B), II, III Concurring Opinion by White Dissenting Opinion by Scalia I, II, (A) (B), III EDWARDS, GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA, ET AL. v. No. 85-1513 1.

Principles of Evolution, Ecology and Behavior Syllabus Professor Stephen C. Description This course presents the principles of evolution, ecology, and behavior for students beginning their study of biology and of the environment. Texts Cotgreave, Peter and Irwin Forseth. Krebs, John R. and Nicholas B. Stearns, Stephen C. and Rolf Hoekstra. Requirements There are two midterms and a paper. Special feature: The course is designed to elicit your own, original questions about evolution, ecology, and behavior through interactions with a website featuring video and still images from the Galapagos and issues and questions posed by recent papers from the primary literature. You may view the Galapagos site at Grading Midterm examination 1: 25% Midterm examination 2: 25% Paper: 50% Join a Study Group Through a pilot arrangement with Open Yale Courses, OpenStudy offers tools to participate in online study groups for a selection of Open Yale Courses, including EEB 122. View study group

National Museum of Natural History Unearthed: NMNH Cupid Love is in the air at the National Museum of Natural History! Our scientists are helping species look for love in this series of “dating profiles” to celebrate Valentine’s Day. Will #NMNHcupid help them find their one and only? What I look like through a microscope. Screen name: BlobSticky&Hairy Species: Trichoplax adhaerens Sex: Extant/asexually prodigious/sexuality? Location: Any warm sea in the ocean will do nicely. Height: Significantly less than 1 mm tall. Diet: I like to creep over algae and other small prey items and digest them right where I find them. My self summary Run run run as fast as you’re able, you’ll want to avoid me. What I'm doing with my life You can think of me as sort of like the blob. I'm really good at I am spectacular at dividing my body into two in order to increase my numbers. Nice video from the lab of Bernd Schierwater showing how I divide to reproduce asexually. The first thing people usually notice about me To be honest, I don’t get noticed much. Favorite food

Understanding Evolution For Teachers Text only version Binghamton Neighborhood Project | Science-based solutions to real-world problems in our community Follow Friday: Exploring the Wild World of Botany Astrophysicists get to study the whole wide universe. Evolutionary biologists get to study the very origins of life. Botanists, they get…plants. And indeed, interest in botany is declining. JSTOR Global Plants Twitter feed Botanists stare at dead leaves, petals, and seeds all day, which doesn’t sound like an exciting way to pass the time. JSTOR Global Plants’ Twitter feed is also packed with stories and photos that’ll show you how vital—and cool—botany is. The PlantNet App Calling all citizen scientists! Science writer Jennifer Frazer’s blog and Twitter feed On Twitter and on her Artful Ameoba blog over at Scientific American, Jennifer Frazer marvels at the plants, fungi, and tiny creatures that form the backbone of our world. Global Forest Watch Trees sustain all life on earth, from the animals and insects that live in them to the humans inhabiting megacities. Go Back to Top.

Evolution Entrance These exhibits trace evolutionary thought as it has developed over time, pausing to ponder the contributions of scientists and thinkers including Aristotle, Darwin, Wallace, and many others. Explore the theory of evolution. Learn about the history of evolutionary thought. There are many other great places to look on-line for information about evolution. Here are a few of our favorites: — Visit Understanding Evolution, a new site launched in February 2004 to meet the needs of K-12 teachers. — Browse the Talk Origins Archive, a rich source of information about evolution and the evolution/creation controversy. — Visit the National Center for Science Education website, a nationally-recognized clearinghouse for information and advice on teaching evolution in the classroom.

PCR primer design: primers4clades tutorial Welcome to the primers4clades (primers for clades) documentation and tutorial page. This document explains how to use this tool and, more importantly, how to read the results. For a quick start try the tutorials, which are based on the provided demo sequences. They will provide a convenient overview of the server's user interface and capabilities. Table of contents Back to table of contents Overview This section provides a short description of the server capabilities. What can this server do? primers4clades (primers for clades) is an easy-to-use web server developed for researchers interested in the design of PCR primers for cross-species amplification of novel sequences from metagenomic DNA or from uncharacterized organisms belonging to user-specified phylogenetic clades or taxa. Figure 1. The primers4clades extended CODEHOP algorithm The server has two run modes. The "cluster sequences" run mode is interactive. Computational steps in the default, non-interactive "get primers" run mode

Marxism Marxism is a worldview and a method of societal analysis that focuses on class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and applies that to the critique and analysis of the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. In the mid-to-late 19th century, the intellectual tenets of Marxism were inspired by two German philosophers: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist analyses and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements. Marxism encompasses an economic theory, a sociological theory, a philosophical method, and a revolutionary view of social change.[1] Marxism builds on a materialist understanding of societal development, taking as its starting point the necessary economic activities required to satisfy the material needs of human society. V.

Evolution in Action: Lizard Moving From Eggs to Live Birth Evolution has been caught in the act, according to scientists who are decoding how a species of Australian lizard is abandoning egg-laying in favor of live birth. Along the warm coastal lowlands of New South Wales (map), the yellow-bellied three-toed skink lays eggs to reproduce. But individuals of the same species living in the state's higher, colder mountains are almost all giving birth to live young. Only two other modern reptiles—another skink species and a European lizard—use both types of reproduction. (Related: "Virgin Birth Expected at Christmas—By Komodo Dragon.") Evolutionary records shows that nearly a hundred reptile lineages have independently made the transition from egg-laying to live birth in the past, and today about 20 percent of all living snakes and lizards give birth to live young only. Eggs-to-Baby Switch Creates Nutrient Problem One of the mysteries of how reptiles switch from eggs to live babies is how the young get their nourishment before birth.