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To make memories, new neurons must erase older ones

To make memories, new neurons must erase older ones
Short-term memory may depend in a surprising way on the ability of newly formed neurons to erase older connections. That's the conclusion of a report in the November 13th issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication, that provides some of the first evidence in mice and rats that new neurons sprouted in the hippocampus cause the decay of short-term fear memories in that brain region, without an overall memory loss. The researchers led by Kaoru Inokuchi of The University of Toyama in Japan say the discovery shows a more important role than many would have anticipated for the erasure of memories. They propose that the birth of new neurons promotes the gradual loss of memory traces from the hippocampus as those memories are transferred elsewhere in the brain for permanent storage. Although they examined this process only in the context of fear memory, Inokuchi says he "thinks all memories that are initially stored in the hippocampus are influenced by this process." Related:  Memory

Welcome to WWW.ZOE7.COM_ Consciousness, Hallucinogens, Hyperspace and Beyond Researchers show that memories reside in specific brain cells Our fond or fearful memories — that first kiss or a bump in the night — leave memory traces that we may conjure up in the remembrance of things past, complete with time, place and all the sensations of the experience. Neuroscientists call these traces memory engrams. But are engrams conceptual, or are they a physical network of neurons in the brain? In a new MIT study, researchers used optogenetics to show that memories really do reside in very specific brain cells, and that simply activating a tiny fraction of brain cells can recall an entire memory — explaining, for example, how Marcel Proust could recapitulate his childhood from the aroma of a once-beloved madeleine cookie. In that famous surgery, Penfield treated epilepsy patients by scooping out parts of the brain where seizures originated. Fast forward to the introduction, seven years ago, of optogenetics, which can stimulate neurons that are genetically modified to express light-activated proteins. False memory

Neuroscience Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.[1] Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine and allied disciplines, philosophy, physics, and psychology. It also exerts influence on other fields, such as neuroeducation[2] and neurolaw. Because of the increasing number of scientists who study the nervous system, several prominent neuroscience organizations have been formed to provide a forum to all neuroscientists and educators. History[edit] The study of the nervous system dates back to ancient Egypt. Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of the Greek physician Hippocrates. Modern neuroscience[edit] Human nervous system

5 Best Screencast Software For Creating YouTube Videos Screencast applications help users create video tutorials and training courses by capturing desktop content. Such tools often provide numerous handy options for adding voice and music to recorded videos, as well as to annotate video frames to provide useful information to the viewer. I myself make use of such applications to provide my readers with video guides which are often added to some of the posts at WML Cloud . These screencasts are also uploaded to the official WML Cloud YouTube Channel , as well as to our channels at Vimeo and DailyMotion . If you are looking for a good free tool to create screencasts for educational, business or personal use, then here are a few suggestions for you. BB FlashBack Express This is a free Windows tool for creating screencasts . Some of the main features of this application are as follows: You can record your desktop, along with the output from your mike and webcam. You can save files in Flash or AVI format. Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7 Ezvid

The Cloud and Collaboration Paper written as a contribution to the Ars Electronica symposium on Cloud Intelligence. Let's take as a starting point the discussion of 'cloud intelligence' on the conference website: In the cloud of connections, we each become social neurons, mimicking the biological human brain but on a giant scale. This idea of the connected world as a global brain is not new, nor surprising. Peter Russell's The Global Brain explicitly makes the connection. We have already noted that there are, very approximately, the same number of nerve cells in a human brain as there are human minds on the planet. According to Russell, the brain develops in two phases. Tom Stonier writes, In principle, this process does not differ from the evolution of primitive nervous systems into advanced mammalian brains... each node, rather than being a neuron, is a person comprising trillions of neurons ... coupled ... to their personal computers... We think together but remain independent in our identity. 80+1. (2008).

02.22.2010 - An afternoon nap markedly boosts the brain’s learning capacity If you see a student dozing in the library or a co-worker catching 40 winks in her cubicle, don’t roll your eyes. New research from the University of California, Berkeley, shows that an hour’s nap can dramatically boost and restore your brain power. Indeed, the findings suggest that a biphasic sleep schedule not only refreshes the mind, but can make you smarter. Students who napped (green column) did markedly better in memorizing tests than their no-nap counterparts. Conversely, the more hours we spend awake, the more sluggish our minds become, according to the findings. “Sleep not only rights the wrong of prolonged wakefulness but, at a neurocognitive level, it moves you beyond where you were before you took a nap,” said Matthew Walker, an assistant professor of psychology at UC Berkeley and the lead investigator of these studies. In the recent UC Berkeley sleep study, 39 healthy young adults were divided into two groups — nap and no-nap.

How Friends Ruin Memory: The Social Conformity Effect | Wired Science Humans are storytelling machines. We don’t passively perceive the world – we tell stories about it, translating the helter-skelter of events into tidy narratives. This is often a helpful habit, helping us make sense of mistakes, consider counterfactuals and extract a sense of meaning from the randomness of life. But our love of stories comes with a serious side-effect: like all good narrators, we tend to forsake the facts when they interfere with the plot. We’re so addicted to the anecdote that we let the truth slip away until, eventually, those stories we tell again and again become exercises in pure fiction. The reason we’re such consummate bullshitters is simple: we bullshit for each other. The power of this phenomenon was demonstrated in a new Science paper by Micah Edelson, Tali Sharot, Raymond Dolan and Yadin Dudai. This time, though, the subjects were given a “lifeline”: they were shown the answers given by other people in their film-viewing group. Image: wolfgangfoto/Flickr

#31: Autism: One Label, Many Diseases | Mental Health People with autism are regularly lumped together and treated as a single group. But the world’s largest genetic study of the condition “shows that autism is many different diseases,” says Stanley Nelson, a professor of genetics and psychiatry at UCLA who collaborated on the investigation. “That insight should greatly enlighten how we think about autism and attempt to treat it.” The study, conducted by a global consortium of 120 scientists, compared the genes of more than 1,000 autistic children with those of 1,300 youngsters unaffected by the disorder. As the researchers reported last July, the mutations associated with autism fall all over the map. “If 100 different kids with autism walked into a clinic,” Nelson says, “chances are they’d have 100 different genetic aberrations.” Most of those aberrations occur in genes that affect the development and functioning of the brain.

Get Latest Discount Offers For Android And iOS Apps With AppZapp AppZapp is a cross-platform application for Android and iOS devices which provides users with information regarding the latest application discounts for Android or iOS apps. AppZapp informs users about price drops by push notifications or via email. There are hundreds of price drops everyday for applications on Google Play and for iOS devices (such as iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad), however, it can be hard to keep track or even find out about such discounts, some of which may be for a limited time frame.With AppZapp you can easily find such discounts within an easy to sort interface. AppZapp also provides the utility to sync data with your desktop and can also be used to find the latest apps to be released in the Android or iOS apps store. App Lists AppZapp displays the current total value of your Apps (in “My AppZapp”) and provides price alerts from your purchased apps. Android Beta Version Sync Tool The AppZapp sync tool can be download for Windows or Mac OS X. Demo Related Posts:

Brain innately separates living and non-living objects for proce For unknown reasons, the human brain distinctly separates the handling of images of living things from images of non-living things, processing each image type in a different area of the brain. For years, many scientists have assumed the brain segregated visual information in this manner to optimize processing the images themselves, but new research shows that even in people who have been blind since birth the brain still separates the concepts of living and non-living objects. The research, published in today's issue of Neuron, implies that the brain categorizes objects based on the different types of subsequent consideration they demand—such as whether an object is edible, or is a landmark on the way home, or is a predator to run from. They are not categorized entirely by their appearance. "When we looked at the MRI scans, it was pretty clear that blind people and sighted people were dividing up living and non-living processing in the same way," says Mahon. Story source

The Ten Most Revealing Psych Experiments Psychology is the study of the human mind and mental processes in relation to human behaviors - human nature. Due to its subject matter, psychology is not considered a 'hard' science, even though psychologists do experiment and publish their findings in respected journals. Some of the experiments psychologists have conducted over the years reveal things about the way we humans think and behave that we might not want to embrace, but which can at least help keep us humble. That's something. 1. 'Lord of the Flies': Social Identity Theory The Robbers Cave Experiment is a classic social psychology experiment conducted with two groups of 11-year old boys at a state park in Oklahoma, and demonstrates just how easily an exclusive group identity is adopted and how quickly the group can degenerate into prejudice and antagonism toward outsiders. Researcher Muzafer Sherif actually conducted a series of 3 experiments. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Turns out that it's all about framing.

How Our Brains Make Memories Sitting at a sidewalk café in Montreal on a sunny morning, Karim Nader recalls the day eight years earlier when two planes slammed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center. He lights a cigarette and waves his hands in the air to sketch the scene. At the time of the attack, Nader was a postdoctoral researcher at New York University. He flipped the radio on while getting ready to go to work and heard the banter of the morning disc jockeys turn panicky as they related the events unfolding in Lower Manhattan. Nader ran to the roof of his apartment building, where he had a view of the towers less than two miles away. In the following days, Nader recalls, he passed through subway stations where walls were covered with notes and photographs left by people searching desperately for missing loved ones. Like millions of people, Nader has vivid and emotional memories of the September 11, 2001, attacks and their aftermath. Nader believes he may have an explanation for such quirks of memory.

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