Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework — University of Louisville Ideas To Action Critical thinking is that mode of thinking – about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. (Paul and Elder, 2001). The Paul-Elder framework has three components: The elements of thought (reasoning)The intellectual standards that should be applied to the elements of reasoningThe intellectual traits associated with a cultivated critical thinker that result from the consistent and disciplined application of the intellectual standards to the elements of thought According to Paul and Elder (1997), there are two essential dimensions of thinking that students need to master in order to learn how to upgrade their thinking. Elements of Thought (reasoning) The "parts" or elements of thinking are as follows: Universal Intellectual Standards Clarity Could you elaborate? Could you illustrate what you mean? Could you give me an example?
Home - Team-Based Learning Collaborative Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction for the Thinking Classroom - H. Lynn Erickson - Google Books 40 Alternative Assessment Ideas for Learning When people think of assessment, pencils and bubble sheets may be the first things that come to mind. Assessment does not always have to involve paper and pencil, but can instead be a project, an observation, or a task that shows a student has learned the material. In the end, all we really want to know is that the skill was mastered, right? Why not make it fun and engaging for students as well? Many teachers shy away from alternative assessments because they take extra time and effort to create and to grade. On the other hand, once the assessment guidelines and grading rubric are created, it can be filed away and used year after year. The project card and rubric can be run on card stock (one on each side of the page), laminated, and hole punched with other alternative assessment ideas. Here are 40 alternative assessment ideas to get you started! Alternative Reading Assessments 1. Create a bookmark to match the theme of the last book read. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Alternative Writing Assessments
ch7think Brown Bag Exams: A Creative Way to Assess Learning | Unlocking the Past: Reading, Writing, and History for Adolescents & Teens Denise Ousley-Exum, PhD developed the Brown Bag Exam to address the disconnect that she and her students were experiencing between instruction and assessment. She had strategies that engaged students in reading and writing and used instruction to connect the literature to students' lives. However, she lacked assessments that matched the activities students had enjoyed. She knew that the majority of students had gotten the reading, but that same majority of students were failing the test. Her tests showed what students didn't know, not what they had read, learned, or gained. About Brown Bag Exams A Brown Bag Exam uses found objects and images to help students activate prior knowledge and creates a framework for students to express their understanding. A typical Brown Bag Exam follows five steps: First, students open their bags, puzzle for a few seconds over the item(s), and then brainstorm a list of the connections they see among their Brown Bag item(s) and the reading. Back to Top Dr.
Metacognition Print Version by Nancy Chick, CFT Assistant Director Thinking about One’s Thinking | Putting Metacognition into Practice Thinking about One’s Thinking Metacognition is, put simply, thinking about one’s thinking. Initially studied for its development in young children (Baker & Brown, 1984; Flavell, 1985), researchers soon began to look at how experts display metacognitive thinking and how, then, these thought processes can be taught to novices to improve their learning (Hatano & Inagaki, 1986). Metacognitive practices increase students’ abilities to transfer or adapt their learning to new contexts and tasks (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, p. 12; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Scardamalia et al., 1984; Schoenfeld, 1983, 1985, 1991). Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers, test-takers, group members, etc. Putting Metacognition into Practice To facilitate these activities, she also offers three useful tables: References
edutopia Self-reflection is self-assessment, and one of the most significant learning tools we can model for our students. Ultimately, we want our children and adolescents to be the self-assessors of their work, dispositions, and goals. Research repeatedly reports that the difference between good teachers and superior teachers is that superior teachers self-reflect. The brain is wired for this strategy, and it has been a part of our evolution. When we teach to a child's or adolescent's brain, we empower that student with the "inner resources" that directly affect his or her ability to pay attention, engage, and create meaningful learning experiences. Simply stated, when the brain feels any type of a threat (emotional, social, or cognitive stress) the thinking part shuts down. The following self-assessment survey, created for students and educators, provides questions that address short- and long-term goals. Big Goals Daily Goals Questions for Self-Assessment What do I need?
CriticalThinking.org - Critical Thinking Model 1 To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures Standard: Clarityunderstandable, the meaning can be grasped Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example? Standard: Accuracyfree from errors or distortions, true How could we check on that? Standard: Precisionexact to the necessary level of detail Could you be more specific? Standard: Relevancerelating to the matter at hand How does that relate to the problem? Standard: Depthcontaining complexities and multiple interrelationships What factors make this a difficult problem? Standard: Breadthencompassing multiple viewpoints Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Standard: Logicthe parts make sense together, no contradictions Does all this make sense together? Standard: Significancefocusing on the important, not trivial Is this the most important problem to consider? Standard: FairnessJustifiable, not self-serving or one-sided Do I have any vested interest in this issue? Think About... Gather...
5 Research-Based Tips for Providing Students with Meaningful Feedback In recent years, research has confirmed what most teachers already knew: Providing students with meaningful feedback can greatly enhance their learning and achievement. Professor James Pennebaker from the University of Texas at Austin has been researching the benefits of frequent testing and the feedback it leads to. He explains that in the history of the study of learning, the role of feedback has always been central: “When people are trying to learn new skills, they must get some information that tells them whether or not they are doing the right thing. Learning in the classroom is no exception. Both the mastery of content and, more importantly, the mastery of how to think require trial-and-error learning.” The downside, of course, is that not all feedback is equally effective, and it can even be counterproductive, especially if it’s presented in a solely negative or corrective way. So what exactly are the most effective ways to use feedback in educational settings? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Criterion- vs. Norm-Referenced Tests Source: Huitt, W. (1996). Measurement and evaluation: Criterion- versus norm-referenced testing. Educational Psychology Interactive. Return to: | Measurement & Evaluation | EdPsyc Interactive: Courses | Many educators and members of the public fail to grasp the distinctions between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced testing. The following is adapted from: Popham, J. The differences outlined are discussed in many texts on testing. Additional resources: Bond, L. (1996). Return to: | Measurement & Evaluation | EdPsycInteractive: Courses | Home Page | All materials on this website [ are, unless otherwise stated, the property of William G.
Dipsticks: Efficient Ways to Check for Understanding What strategy can double student learning gains? According to 250 empirical studies, the answer is formative assessment, defined by Bill Younglove as “the frequent, interactive checking of student progress and understanding in order to identify learning needs and adjust teaching appropriately.” Unlike summative assessment, which evaluates student learning according to a benchmark, formative assessment monitors student understanding so that kids are always aware of their academic strengths and learning gaps. It also helps teachers improve the effectiveness of their instruction. Alternative formative assessment (AFA) strategies can be as simple (and important) as checking the oil in your car—hence the name “dipsticks.” You can find another 53 ways to check for understanding toward the end of this post and as a downloadable document. Observation: A Key Practice in Alternative Formative Assessment A fundamental element of most AFAs is observation. New to Alternative Formative Assessment?
Examples of Rubrics - University of Wisconsin Stout Examples of Rubrics Grading rubrics precisely describe performance expectations. Rubrics offer explicit criteria to help students meet learning objectives. Rubrics also make meaningful feedback and evaluation more efficient. The sample rubrics below address discussion, eportfolios, group projects, blogs, wikis, and more! Learn more about rubrics and alternative assessments in our Online Courses, Online Certificate Programs, and Graduate Degree Presentation Rubrics Podcast RubricAnn Bell's rubric helps students assess what makes a good podcast. PowerPoint Rubric10 performance categories Oral Presentation Rubric (Word doc) VoiceThread Participation Rubric (pdf)Michelle Pacansky-Brock's general formative assessment is used when students view a mini video lecture/presentation. Oral Presentation Checklist4Teachers.org provides an online tool to customize the checklist for your grade level Oral PresentationMidlink Magazine's assessment of 6 performance areas (middle school) Poster Rubric Quick Rubric
Rubrics - Teaching Excellence What are Rubrics? A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly represents the performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work. A rubric divides the assigned work into component parts and provides clear descriptions of the characteristics of the work associated with each component, at varying levels of mastery. Rubrics can be used for a wide array of assignments: papers, projects, oral presentations, artistic performances, group projects, etc. Rubrics can be used as scoring or grading guides, to provide formative feedback to support and guide ongoing learning efforts, or both. Advantages of Using Rubrics Using a rubric provides several advantages to both instructors and students. Used more formatively, rubrics can help instructors get a clearer picture of the strengths and weaknesses of their class. Grading rubrics are also valuable to students. Examples of Rubrics Here are links to a diverse set of rubrics designed by Carnegie Mellon faculty and faculty at other institutions.