Asgard In Norse religion, Asgard (Old Norse: ''Ásgarðr''; "Enclosure of the Æsir") is one of the Nine Worlds and home to the Æsir tribe of gods. It is surrounded by an incomplete wall attributed to a Hrimthurs riding the stallion Svaðilfari, according to Gylfaginning. Odin and his wife, Frigg, are the rulers of Asgard. One of Asgard's well known locations is Valhalla, in which Odin rules. Attestations In the Prose Edda, Gylfi, King of Sweden before the arrival of the Æsir under Odin, travels to Asgard, questions the three officials shown in the illumination concerning the Æsir, and is beguiled. The primary sources regarding Asgard come from the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Icelandic Snorri Sturluson, and the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from a basis of much older Skaldic poetry. Poetic Edda Völuspá, the first poem of the work, mentions many of the features and characters of Asgard portrayed by Snorri, such as Yggdrasil and Iðavöllr. Prose Edda
Attis Phrygian and Greek god Attis (/ˈætɪs/; Greek: Ἄττις, also Ἄτυς, Ἄττυς, Ἄττης) was the consort of Cybele in Phrygian and Greek mythology. His priests were eunuchs, the Galli, as explained by origin myths pertaining to Attis and castration. Attis was also a Phrygian god of vegetation. The 19th-century identification with the name Atys encountered in Herodotus (i.34–45) as the historical name of the son of Croesus ("Atys the sun god, slain by the boar's tusk of winter") is mistaken. History At the temple of Cybele in Pessinus, the mother of the gods was still called Agdistis, the geographer Strabo recounted. Sculpture of Attis. As neighboring Lydia came to control Phrygia, the cult of Attis was given a Lydian context too. Julian the Apostate gives an account of the spread of the orgiastic cult of Cybele in his Oratio 5. Archaeological finds Ancient Roman statue of god Attis found at Ostia, now in the Lateran Museum. Notes ^ William Smith. References M.
Odin Major god in Norse mythology Odin (; from Old Norse: Óðinn, IPA: [ˈoːðinː]) is a widely revered god in Germanic mythology. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, healing, death, royalty, the gallows, knowledge, war, battle, victory, sorcery, poetry, frenzy, and the runic alphabet, and is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, and in Old High German as Wuotan. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, and he is frequently referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards. Attestations 36.
Horus Egyptian war deity Etymology Nekheny may have been another falcon god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, with whom Horus was identified from early on. Horus may be shown as a falcon on the Narmer Palette, dating from about the 31st century BC. Horus and the pharaoh The Pyramid Texts (c. 2400–2300 BC) describe the nature of the pharaoh in different characters as both Horus and Osiris. The lineage of Horus, the eventual product of unions between the children of Atum, may have been a means to explain and justify pharaonic power. The notion of Horus as the pharaoh seems to have been superseded by the concept of the pharaoh as the son of Ra during the Fifth Dynasty. Origin mythology Mythological roles Sky god Since Horus was said to be the sky, he was considered to also contain the Sun and Moon. It became said[by whom?] As Horus was the ultimate victor he became known as ḥr.w wr "Horus the Great", but more usually translated "Horus the Elder". Her-ur
Thor In Norse mythology, Thor (/θɔr/; from Old Norse Þórr) is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing, healing and fertility. The cognate deity in wider Germanic mythology and paganism was known in Old English as Þunor and in Old High German as Donar (runic þonar ᚦᛟᚾᚨᚱ), stemming from a Common Germanic *Þunraz (meaning "thunder"). Ultimately stemming from Proto-Indo-European religion, Thor is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania, to the tribal expansions of the Migration Period, to his high popularity during the Viking Age, when, in the face of the process of the Christianization of Scandinavia, emblems of his hammer, Mjölnir, were worn in defiance and Norse pagan personal names containing the name of the god bear witness to his popularity. Name Attestations Roman era Post-Roman Era
Nephthys Egyptian deity She was worshiped as the goddess of mourning, rivers, the night, service, childbirth, mothers, the dead, protection, the home, the hearth, coffins, burial, and air. Etymology Nephthys – Musée du Louvre, Paris, France Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliterated as Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, from Egyptian hieroglyphs).The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as "Lady of the House", which has caused some to mistakenly identify her with the notion of a "housewife", or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. Function Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths. Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet or Isis. Less well understood than her sister Isis, Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. "Ascend and descend; descend with Nephthys, sink into darkness with the Night-bark.
Cantar de los nibelungos Primera página del manuscrito. (ca. 1230). El Cantar de los nibelungos (en alemán: Nibelungenlied) es un poema épico de la Edad Media, escrito sobre el siglo XIII, anónimo, de origen germano. Este cantar de gesta reúne muchas de las leyendas existentes sobre los pueblos germánicos, mezcladas con hechos históricos y creencias mitológicas que, por la profundidad de su contenido, complejidad y variedad de personajes, se convirtió en la epopeya nacional alemana, con la misma jerarquía literaria del Cantar de mío Cid en España y el Cantar de Roldán en Francia. El manuscrito del Cantar, el cual es conservado en la Biblioteca Estatal de Baviera, fue inscrito en el Programa Memoria del Mundo de la UNESCO en el 2009 como reconocimiento de su significancia histórica. El compositor alemán Richard Wagner se inspiró en alguna medida en este poema épico y en la tradición mitológica germánica y nórdica para componer la tetralogía operística Der Ring des Nibelungen ('El anillo del nibelungo').
Ra Ra (; Ancient Egyptian: rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw; cuneiform: 𒊑𒀀 ri-a or 𒊑𒅀ri-ia) or Re (; Coptic: ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings, and the sky. Ra was portrayed as a falcon and shared characteristics with the sky god Horus. All forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra. Religious roles The sun as a creator The sun is the giver of life, controlling the ripening of crops which were worked by man. In the underworld When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris, the god of the dead. Iconography Figure of Ra-Horakhty, 3rd century BC Ra-Khepri (solar disc and scarab beetle). Ra was represented in a variety of forms. Worship Raet-Tawy
Ragnarök End times in Norse mythology The north portal of the 12th-century Urnes stave church has been interpreted as containing depictions of snakes and dragons that represent Ragnarök. In Norse mythology, Ragnarök (/ˈræɡnəˌrɒk, ˈrɑːɡ-/ ( listen)) is a series of events, including a great battle, foretold to lead to the death of a number of great figures (including the Gods Odin, Thor, Týr, Freyr, Heimdallr and Loki), natural disasters and the submersion of the world in water. After these events, the world will resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and returning gods will meet and the world will be repopulated by two human survivors. The event is attested primarily in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Etymology The Old Norse compound ragnarok has a long history of interpretation. Attestations Poetic Edda Völuspá Vafþrúðnismál Prose Edda
Heracles Origin Many popular stories were told of his life, the most famous being The Twelve Labours of Heracles; Alexandrian poets of the Hellenistic age drew his mythology into a high poetic and tragic atmosphere. His figure, which initially drew on Near Eastern motifs such as the lion-fight, was widely known. Heracles was the greatest of Hellenic chthonic heroes, but unlike other Greek heroes, no tomb was identified as his. The core of the story of Heracles has been identified by Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of shamanistic crossings into the netherworld. It is possible that the myths surrounding Heracles were based on the life of a real person or several people whose accomplishments became exaggerated with time. Based on commonalities in the legends of Heracles and Odysseus, author Steven Sora suggested that they were both based on the same historical person, who made his mark prior to recorded history. Hero or god Christian chronology Cult
Valhalla In Norse mythology, Valhalla (/vælˈhælə, vɑːlˈhɑːlə/; from Old Norse Valhöll "hall of the slain") is a majestic, enormous hall located in Asgard, ruled over by the god Odin. Chosen by Odin, half of those who die in combat travel to Valhalla upon death, led by valkyries, while the other half go to the goddess Freyja's field Fólkvangr. In Valhalla, the dead join the masses of those who have died in combat known as Einherjar and various legendary Germanic heroes and kings, as they prepare to aid Odin during the events of Ragnarök. Before the hall stands the golden tree Glasir, and the hall's ceiling is thatched with golden shields. Etymology The Modern English noun Valhalla derives from Old Norse Valhöll, a compound noun composed of two elements: the masculine noun valr 'the slain' and the feminine noun höll 'hall'. Attestations Poetic Edda Grímnismál Helgakviða Hundingsbana II Prose Edda Gylfaginning Skáldskaparmál Heimskringla
Georg Friedrich Creuzer Georg Friedrich Creuzer (German: [ˈkʀɔɪtsɐ]; 10 March 1771 – 6 February 1858) was a German philologist and archaeologist. He was born at Marburg, the son of a bookbinder. After studying at Marburg and at the University of Jena, he went to Leipzig as a private tutor; but in 1802 he was appointed professor at Marburg, and two years later professor of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg. He held the latter position for nearly forty-five years, with the exception of a short time spent at the University of Leiden, where his health was affected by the Dutch climate. Creuzer's other works include: See the autobiographical Aus dem Leben eines alten Professors (Leipzig and Darmstadt, 1848), to which was added in the year of his death Paralipomena der Lebenskunde eines alten Professors (Frankfurt, 1858); also Starck, Friederich Kreuzer, sein Bildungsgang und seine bleibende Bedeutung (Heidelberg, 1875). Notes References