Finnish mythology is the mythology that goes with Finnish paganism, of which a modern revival is practiced by a small percentage of the Finnish people. It has many features shared with fellow Finnic Estonian mythology and its non-Finnic neighbours, the Balts and the Scandinavians. Some of their myths are also distantly related to the myths of other Finno-Ugric speakers like the Samis. Finnish mythology survived within an oral tradition of mythical poem-singing and folklore well into the 19th century. Although the gradual influence of surrounding cultures raised the significance of the sky-god in a monolatristic manner, the father god "Ukko" (Old Man) was originally just a nature spirit like all the others. Study of Finnish mythological and religious history Cristfried Ganander's Mythologia Fennica, published in 1789, was the first truly scholarly foray into Finnish mythology. The origins and the structure of the world Structure of the world, according to Finnish mythology.
Finnic mythologiesFinnic mythologies are the various mythologies of the Finnic peoples [nb 1], such as the Volga Finns, Baltic Finns, Permians, and Sami. The mythologies of the Finno-Lappic speakers have some common aspects; the Sami people are deeply shamanistic, and these traits are present also in Finnish-Karelian mythology. Baltic Finnic mythologies are additionally related to shamanism in Siberia on one hand, and to Indo-European Baltic and Germanic mythologies on the other. The mythologies of the Baltic Finns, especially, were directly influenced by their Indo-European neighbors, the Scandinavians, the Slavs, and the Baltic peoples. The Baltic Finns share some common religious and historical traditions that were transmitted orally via the art of ancient rune singing, estimated to be 2500–3000 years old. Shamanism has been an important influence on the mythologies of most (but not all)[who?] Finnish J. Estonian Sami Main article: Sami religion Mordvin See also
Sami shamanismAnimal spirits Aside from the Bear Cult, there are other animal spirits such as the Haldi who watched over nature. Some Sami people had a thunder god called Tiermes, sometimes called Horagalles. The forest-god of the Sami, Laib olmai ruled over all forest animals, which were regarded as his herds, and luck in hunting, or the reverse, depended on his good will. Sieidis In the landscape throughout Northern Scandinavia, one can find sieidis, places that have unusual land forms different from the surrounding countryside. The clan and family gods of the Sami are known in different parts of Sapmi under the name of Seita, Sieidis or Storjunkare. Noaide A noaidi was a mediator between the human world and saivo, the underworld, for the least of community problems. Elements of Norse mythology as well as Christian ideas are found in the later practices. Sámi peoples in northern Scandinavia today belong to Christian churches. Ancestors Deities See also
Baltic mythologyBaltic mythology is the body of mythology of the Baltic people stemming from Baltic paganism and continuing after Christianization and into Baltic folklore. Baltic mythology ultimately stems from Proto-Indo-European mythology. The Baltic region was one of the last regions of Europe to be Christianized, a process that occurred from the 15th century and into at least a century after. While no native texts survive detailing the mythology of the Baltic peoples during the pagan period, knowledge of the mythology may be gained from Russian and German chronicles, later folklore, by way of etymology, and comparative mythology. While the early chronicles (14th and 15th century) were largely the product of missionaries who sought to eradicate the native paganism of the Baltic peoples, rich material survives into Baltic folklore. See also Notes References
Latvian mythologyThe seasons, festivals and numerous deities of historic Latvian mythology reflected the essential agrarian nature of Latvian tribal life. Much of its symbolism (an example is the pērkonkrusts or thunder cross) is ancient. These seasons and festivals are still celebrated today—for example, Jāņi is a national holiday. History Territories of Baltic tribes at beginning of the 13th century. There are few reports of Baltic tribes, the ancestors of modern Latvians, and their mythology until Christianization in the 13th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, it was assumed that Baltic tribes were originally one nation and thus had the same deities. Early authors trying to reconstruct a Latvian pantheon using data from neighboring regions. At the same time some pagan rites were still practiced. Although research in Latvia could only restart in the 1980s, the 1970s saw the emergence of a folklore movement with members which could be described as neopagans. Celestial deities
Polish mythologyPolish mythology comprises beliefs and myths of ancient Poland, including witchcraft and elements of Paganism. The Polish pantheon Major gods Other gods Polish supernatural beings Polish heroes Polish folk magic See also References External links Polish Gods and Goddesses Gallery Further reading Chrypinski, Anna, editor.
Prussian mythologyHistorical background and sources The Teutonic Knights, a crusading military order, began the Prussian Crusade in the 1220s. Their goal was to conquer and convert pagan Prussians to Christianity. The Knights built log and stone fortresses, which proved to be impregnable to the Prussians. Affected by the Protestant Reformation, the former Catholic stronghold the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights was transformed into the Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. Various later authors simply copied information from Grunau and the Sudovian Book adding no or very little new information. Prussian pantheon Early lists The 1249 Treaty of Christburg mentioned Curche, an idol worshiped during harvest festivals. Another reliable source is a 1418 memorandum (Collato Episcopi Varmiensis) written by Bishop of Warmia to Pope Martin V. Sudovian Book and Constitutiones Synodales Constitutiones listed ten Prussian gods and provided their classical Roman equivalents. References
Who are the Happy Gods?Who are the happy gods?(if you are going to worship a god, it might as well be a happy one) Achelois (Greek goddess) Achelois means "she who drives away pain", and she was a Moon Goddess. Aphrodite (Greek goddess) Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty and sexual rapture.She loved gaiety and glamour Goddesses and Gods Love and Sexuality Apollo (Greek god) Apollo is in many respects the paradigm of a Greek god. Ame-no-uzume (Japanese goddess) "The dance of the goddess Ame-no-Uzume grew wilder as she recalled a thousand orgasms she had enjoyed: her nipples stiffened and she felt her sex open when she remembered the phalluses of the countless lovers who had penetrated her. Anna Perenna (Roman goddess) Goddess of the New Year, provider of food. Bacchus (Roman god) God of Wine and Intoxication. Bastet (Egyptian goddess) A woman with the head of a domesticated cat, sometimes holding a sistrum. Baubo (Greek goddess) Baubo appears in the story of Demeter & Persephone. Belun (Slavic god) Pax (Roman god)
SampoDescription in the Kalevala The Sampo is a pivotal element of the plot of the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, compiled in 1835 (and expanded in 1849) by Elias Lönnrot based on earlier Finnish oral tradition. In the expanded second version of the poem, the Sampo is forged by Ilmarinen, a legendary smith, as a task set by the Mistress of Pohjola in return for her daughter's hand. "Ilmarinen, worthy brother, Thou the only skilful blacksmith, Go and see her wondrous beauty, See her gold and silver garments, See her robed in finest raiment, See her sitting on the rainbow, Walking on the clouds of purple. Forge for her the magic Sampo, Forge the lid in many colors, Thy reward shall be the virgin, Thou shalt win this bride of beauty; Go and bring the lovely maiden To thy home in Kalevala Ilmarinen works for several days at a mighty forge until finally the Sampo is created: On one side the flour is grinding, On another salt is making, On a third is money forging, And the lid is many-colored. See also