Fire The ignition and extinguishing of a pile of wood shavings Slow motion fire sequence 1000 frame/s The fire maps show the locations of actively burning fires around the world on a monthly basis, based on observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite. The colors are based on a count of the number (not size) of fires observed within a 1,000-square-kilometer area. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Physical properties Chemistry Fires start when a flammable and/or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound (though non-oxygen oxidizers exist that can replace oxygen), is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction. Flame Heat
Human physical appearance The human body Factors affecting physical appearance Various factors are considered relevant in relation to the physical appearance of humans. Physiological differences Humans are distributed across the globe with exception of Antarctica, and form a very variable species. Long-term physiological changes Short-term physiological changes Blushing, crying, fainting, hiccup, yawning, laughing, stuttering, sexual arousal, reddening of the skin due to increased blood flow due to exertion. Clothing, personal effects, and intentional body modifications Other functional objects, temporarily attached to the body See also References
Kolmogorov complexity In algorithmic information theory (a subfield of computer science and mathematics), the Kolmogorov complexity (also known as descriptive complexity, Kolmogorov–Chaitin complexity, algorithmic entropy, or program-size complexity) of an object, such as a piece of text, is a measure of the computability resources needed to specify the object. It is named after Andrey Kolmogorov, who first published on the subject in 1963. abababababababababababababababab 4c1j5b2p0cv4w1x8rx2y39umgw5q85s7 The first string has a short English-language description, namely "ab 16 times", which consists of 11 characters. More formally, the complexity of a string is the length of the shortest possible description of the string in some fixed universal description language (the sensitivity of complexity relative to the choice of description language is discussed below). Definition Any string s has at least one description, namely the program: function GenerateFixedString() return s K(s) = |d(s)|. ∀s. ∀s.
Bradley University: Body & Beauty Standards With images of ideal beauty bombarding us daily, it is easy to forget that standards of beauty are arbitrary and they vary greatly both from one culture to another and over time. Such variations in ideals of beauty often reflect the roles women and men are expected to fulfill in a given society. For instance, in contexts where women are valued mainly for their fertility—their ability to bear and nurture children—often full-bodied women with broad hips and ample breasts are considered the most beautiful. In societies such as Fiji, large bodies are a symbol of one’s status and power. But as social conditions and gender roles change, so do ideas about beauty. Why is the American body ideal for women so thin today? Does this tell us anything about the roles we expect men and women to fulfill? Can you think of any “plus-size” celebrities today?
Promiscuity Promiscuity, in human sexual behaviour, is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or of being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners. The term can carry a moral judgement and is viewed in the context of a mainstream social ideal for sexual activity to occur within exclusive committed relationships. A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous within the mainstream social ideals of many cultures is a one-night stand. What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures as does the prevalence of promiscuity, with different standards often being applied to different genders and civil status. Feminists have traditionally argued that there is a significant double standard between how men and women are judged for promiscuity. Promiscuity is common in many animal species. Human promiscuity The number of sexual partners an individual has had in their lifetime varies widely within a population. Global studies
Leadership Theories Early western history The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century. Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. In Galton's Hereditary Genius (1869), he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. Rise of alternative theories In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940; Stogdill, 1948; Mann, 1959) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. Reemergence of trait theory New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. Attribute pattern approach
Mathematical beauty Mathematical beauty describes the notion that some mathematicians may derive aesthetic pleasure from their work, and from mathematics in general. They express this pleasure by describing mathematics (or, at least, some aspect of mathematics) as beautiful. Sometimes mathematicians describe mathematics as an art form or, at a minimum, as a creative activity. Comparisons are often made with music and poetry. Bertrand Russell expressed his sense of mathematical beauty in these words: Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty — a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show. Beauty in method Mathematicians describe an especially pleasing method of proof as elegant. Beauty in results The opposite of deep is trivial. Perhaps ironically, Monastyrsky writes:
Word-sense disambiguation Current accuracy is difficult to state without a host of caveats. In English, accuracy at the coarse-grained (homograph) level is routinely above 90%, with some methods on particular homographs achieving over 96%. On finer-grained sense distinctions, top accuracies from 59.1% to 69.0% have been reported in recent evaluation exercises (SemEval-2007, Senseval-2), where the baseline accuracy of the simplest possible algorithm of always choosing the most frequent sense was 51.4% and 57%, respectively. About A disambiguation process requires two strict things: a dictionary to specify the senses which are to be disambiguated and a corpus of language data to be disambiguated (in some methods, a training corpus of language examples is also required). a type of fishtones of low frequency and the sentences: I went fishing for some sea bass.The bass line of the song is too weak. History Difficulties Differences between dictionaries Part-of-speech tagging Common sense
Male Bodies and Beauty throughout the ages | The Macaronis We have to acknowledge that in this day and age – as it has forever been – beauty matters. Our definition of beauty is based on the media saturation which we are bombarded with on a daily basis. For instance, the idea of tanned = gorgeous has only appeared recently — it would stand to reason that with all the lead-based paints and powder that was used, pale was beautiful as it indicated that you had no need to stand about in the sun all day. As a society, we perceive people who have traits which we consider admirable: self restraint, indefatigable dedication to an idea, sacrifice to epitomise the current standards of beauty – mirrored so closely in the way we view the working world. Personally, all that leaves me completely cold. why yes, that is a plastic knigget on a my little pony Of course, lacking a tardis, I can’t go back in time and drag examples of said bodies to parade before you. For the time periods, I’m shamelessly nicking the structure of “The List” from Speak Its Name.
Bride price Bride price, also known as bridewealth or bride token, is an amount of money or property or wealth paid by the groom or his family to the parents of a woman upon the marriage of their daughter to the groom. (Compare dowry, which is paid to the groom, or used by the bride to help establish the new household, and dower, which is property settled on the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage.) The agreed bride price may or may not be intended to reflect the perceived value of the girl or young woman. The same culture may simultaneously practice both dowry and bride price. Many cultures practiced bride price prior to existing records. Function An evolutionary psychology explanation for dowry and bride price is that bride price is common in polygynous societies which have a relative scarcity of available women. History Ancient Mesopotamia The Code of Hammurabi mentions bride price in various laws as an established custom. Jewish tradition Ancient Greece
Masculinity Masculinity is a set of qualities, characteristics or roles generally considered typical of, or appropriate to, a man. It can have degrees of comparison: "more masculine", "most masculine'". The opposite can be expressed by terms such as "unmanly" or epicene. A near-synonym of masculinity is virility (from Latin vir, man). Constructs of masculinity vary across historical and cultural contexts. The dandy, for instance, was regarded as an ideal of masculinity in the 19th century, but is considered effeminate by modern standards. Traditional masculine norms, as described in Dr. Nature versus nurture Hegemonic masculinity Direct competition of physical skill and strength is a feature of masculinity which appears in some form in virtually every culture on Earth. Traditional avenues for men to gain honor were that of providing adequately for their families and exercising leadership. Connell has labelled the traditional male roles and privileges hegemonic masculinity.