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Modal Logic

Modal Logic
1. What is Modal Logic? Narrowly construed, modal logic studies reasoning that involves the use of the expressions ‘necessarily’ and ‘possibly’. A list describing the best known of these logics follows. 2. The most familiar logics in the modal family are constructed from a weak logic called K (after Saul Kripke). Necessitation Rule: If A is a theorem of K, then so is □A. (In these principles we use ‘A’ and ‘B’ as metavariables ranging over formulas of the language.) The operator ◊ (for ‘possibly’) can be defined from □ by letting ◊A = ~□~A. The system K is too weak to provide an adequate account of necessity. (M) claims that whatever is necessary is the case. Many logicians believe that M is still too weak to correctly formalize the logic of necessity and possibility. S4 is the system that results from adding (4) to M. S4: □□…□ = □ and ◊◊…◊ = ◊ S5: 00…□ = □ and 00…◊ = ◊, where each 0 is either □ or ◊ The system B (for the logician Brouwer) is formed by adding axiom (B) to M. 3. 4. 5. 6. Related:  General Self Improvement Resourcesemilkovac185mathematics

20 Things to Do When You’re Feeling Angry with Someone “If you are patient in one moment of anger, you will escape a hundred days of sorrow.” ~Chinese proverb As Tiny Buddha grows larger, I find there are a lot more people emailing me with requests. The people pleaser in me wants to say yes to everyone, but the reality is that there is only so much time in the day—and we all have a right to allocate our time as best supports our intentions, needs, and goals. Recently someone contacted me with a request that I was unable to honor. After I communicated that, he made a sweeping judgment about my intentions and character, ending his email with “Buddha would be appalled.” As ironic as this may sound given the context of this site, I felt angry. I felt angry because I have always struggled with saying no, and this was exactly the type of uncomfortable encounter I generally aim to avoid. I felt angry because I felt misunderstood and judged, and I wanted him to realize that he was wrong about me. Sit with Your Anger 1. 2. 3. Is your neck tense? 4. 5. 6.

A map of the Tricki | Tricki This is an attempt to give a quick guide to the top few levels of the Tricki. It may cease to be feasible when the Tricki gets bigger, but we might perhaps be able to automate additions to it. Clicking on arrows just to the right of the name of an article reveals its subarticles. If you want to hide the subarticles again, then you should click to the right of them rather than clicking on the name of one of the subarticles themselves, since otherwise you will follow a link to that subarticle. What kind of problem am I trying to solve? General problem-solving tips Front pages for different areas of mathematics How to use mathematical concepts and statements

6 razões para acreditar que estatística é a profissão do futuro Patrícia Vieira O Google guarda cerca de 4 petabytes de dados. A capacidade de um hd dobra a cada dois anos. US$ 12 bilhões são gastos por ano com pesquisas que geram informações capazes de aumentar em até 100% o lucro de uma empresa. Dois milhões de pessoas vão ler esta matéria. Menos de 500 virarão estatísticos. 1. Silver é um exemplo do novo estatístico: alguém que sabe conjugar, projetar e interpretar todos os dados já disponíveis para tirar conclusões reveladoras. Usando a mesma lógica, o analista de dados americano David Coapaken desenvolveu um conjunto de equações capaz de prever, com o roteiro em mãos, o rendimento de filmes. A estatística também serviu para que Oren Etzioni, professor de ciência da computação da Universidade de Washington, se vingasse das companhias aéreas. "A estatística é a arte de torturar os números até que eles confessem. 3. Empresas que conseguem interpretar e comercializar dados estão crescendo a uma velocidade estrondosa. 4. 5. 6.

BIG FIVE MODEL MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR MBTI:Sub Categories Defined Information Gathering Leadership and Team Management Business Management Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623 Lesson 14 Continuing from previous lectures, we are still at personality part of individuals. One can ask question is Personality Stable? Behavior is a function of the situation and the person in the situation People's personalities can be described in a variety of ways.1). enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2). accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations. Behavioral and social-cognitive theories: Reciprocal determinism: the person, the person's behavior, and the environment all influence one another. assumptions put into Action through behavior. this subject. The Big Five Model of Personality: An impressive body of research supports that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. Extraversion: Comfort level with relationships. sociable. meet new people and willing to confront others. goals. things.

Eight Ways to Find People Like You » This Offbeat Life I may well have found the secret to getting unstuck. Find a place to belong. Find people like you. A young woman at Chris Guillebeau’s 1000-maniac gathering in Portland, Oregon, the World Domination Summit, discovered that after enduring geographic and social isolation, she traveled 5000 miles away, and there was the answer to her isolation – she found “People Like Her.” It occurred to me that this is also, for me, at the very heart of every frustrated moment in my current life. So. I can’t find people like me.They already have each other and there’s no room for me.I can’t figure out how to reciprocate.I can’t afford to be with those people.I’m not sure these people are people like me.I’m not worthy.Fill your calendar with interesting possibilities.Exercise leadership and assemble your own group. 1. This part is simple and success builds quickly when you put in the time. Here’s the transcript.Here’s the 23 minute video.The Cliff’s Notes version: Get Out. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

World Cup Follow-Up: Update of Winning Probabilities and Betting Results—Wolfram Blog Find out Etienne’s initial predictions by visiting last week’s World Cup blog post. The World Cup is half-way through: the group phase is over, and the knockout phase is beginning. Let’s update the winning probabilities for the remaining teams, and analyze how our classifier performed on the group-phase matches. From the 32 initial teams, 16 are qualified for the knockout phase: There have been some surprises: from 10 of our favorite teams, 3 have been eliminated (Portugal, England, and, most surprisingly, Spain). Using our classifier, we compute again the winning probabilities of each team. Again, Brazil is the favorite, but with a 32% chance to win now. Let’s now look at the possible final matches: The most probable finals are Brazil vs. In the knockout phase, the position in the tournament tree matters: teams being on the same side as Brazil and Germany (such as France and Colombia) will have a hard time reaching the final. The classifier only got 38% of its bets right.

Self Tests by Psychology Today Career Motivation Test 102 questions, 15 min Everyone holds different values in regards to work and needs different things in their job to feel satisfied and fulfilled. For some, that might be money, fame, power, social interaction or creative expression. For others, it could be intellectual challenge, helping others, or independence. By understanding your career motivation, you can plan a more fulfilling and productive career and create an environment you can thrive in. Examine the following statements and indicate how often or to what degree you feel that way. After finishing the test, you will receive a Snapshot Report with an introduction, a graph and a personalized interpretation for one of your test scores.

49 Ways to Improve Your Life Today Click Here to Download The Report If you want to live a happy, healthy, and fulfilling life, you must be intentional about doing the little things to make your life better. Seems obvious, right? But how intentional are you about doing that to improve the quality of your life? Improving your life is about doing the little things along your journey that bring joy, happiness, and fulfillment into your life. Little Things Matter is all about helping you become the person you need to be to achieve your goals and live the life you desire. In a special contest, members of the Little Things Matter Facebook community were asked to share their #1 little thing that could improve someone’s life today. While it was difficult to choose among them, the Little Things Matter team selected the entries that best represent the inspiring themes that characterized the majority of responses. I invite you to join me in putting a different one of these suggestions into action every day. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Apresentação [Using R] “Uma das coisas mais importantes que você pode fazer é dedicar um tempo para aprender uma linguagem de programação de verdade. Aprender a programar é como aprender outro idioma: exige tempo e treinamento, e não há resultados práticos imediatos. Mas se você supera essa primeira subida íngreme da curva de aprendizado, os ganhos como cientista são enormes. Tradução um tanto livre de Gotelli & Ellison, 2004. "A chave para entender o R é que trata-se de uma linguagem. "A pergunta certa sobre uma análise em R não é se é possível fazê-la, e sim como fazê-la." "Tudo que ensinas a uma criança, impede-a de descobrir." Este é o sítio wiki do nosso curso de introdução à Linguagem para Pós-Graduandos em Ecologia e áreas afins. Este curso é oferecido regularmente em diferentes unidades da USP, em geral como disciplina condensada de pós-graduação e também em outras Universidades. Aqui você encontra as páginas das últimas edições do curso, e material de apoio para estudo. Objetivos Objetivos Específicos 1.

Top 25 Peppermint Oil Uses and Benefits Pleasantly suitable for an abundance of oral and topical uses and antimicrobial properties, peppermint may be the most versatile essential oil in the world along with lavender. Literally, there are few body, health, and mind issues that it cannot help. Peppermint essential oil gives a cooling sensation and has a calming effect on the body, which can relieve sore muscles when used topically. It also has antimicrobial properties so it can help freshen bad breath and soothe digestive issues. Peppermint is a hybrid species of spearmint and water mint (Mentha aquatica). The essential oils are gathered by steam distillation of the fresh aerial parts of the flowering plant. Clinically speaking, peppermint oil is recommended for its anti-nausea benefits and soothing effects on the gastric lining and colon because of its ability to reduce muscle spasms. Peppermint Oil Benefits Some of the most common peppermint oil uses include: Ready to start harnessing the health benefits of peppermint? 1. 2. 3.

8 Tips To Remember What You Read Despite television, cell phones, and Twitter, traditional reading is still an important skill. Whether it is school textbooks, magazines, or regular books, people still read, though not as much as they used to. One reason that many people don’t read much is that they don’t read well. For them, it is slow, hard work and they don’t remember as much as they should. Students, for example,may have to read something several times before they understand and remember what they read. Why? Some of the blame can be placed on the fads in reading teaching, such as phonics and “whole language,” which sometimes are promoted by zealots who don’t respect the need for both approaches. For all those who missed out on good reading skills, it is not too late. Read with a purpose.Skim first.Get the reading mechanics right.Be judicious in highlighting and note taking.Think in pictures.Rehearse as you go along.Stay within your attention span and work to increase that span.Rehearse again soon. 2) Skim First