background preloader

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul
Ib (heart)[edit] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. Sheut (shadow)[edit] A person's shadow or silhouette, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present. The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black. Ren (name)[edit] Ba[edit] Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head. The 'Ba' (bꜣ) was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of 'personality'. In the Coffin Texts one form of the Ba that comes into existence after death is corporeal, eating, drinking and copulating. Ka[edit] Akh[edit] Related:  PENSEE EGYPTIENNE

Duat This article is about the Egyptian underworld. For the evergreen tree, see Jambul. For the aviation weather service, see DUATS. In Egyptian mythology, Duat (pronounced "do-aht") (also Tuat and Tuaut or Akert, Amenthes, Amenti, or Neter-khertet) is the realm of the dead. What we know of the Duat principally derives from funerary texts such as Book of Gates, Book of Caverns, Coffin Texts, Amduat and the Book of the Dead. A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the Weighing of the Heart in Duat where Anubis can be seen on the far right, the scales are shown with the feather balance, and Ammit awaits hearts that she must devour – the presence of Osiris at the gateway to the paradise of Aaru dates the papyrus to a late tradition of the myth. The geography of Duat is similar in outline to the world the Egyptians knew. If the deceased successfully passed these unpleasant demons, he or she would reach the Weighing of the Heart. References Bibliography Faulkner, R.

Maat (Egyptian Goddess) Maat. In Egyptian mythology, Maat is the goddess of order, the world's balance, equity, peace, truth and justice. It is the antithesis of Isfet (the god of chaos, injustice, social disorder). Maat is an entity symbolizing the universal standard: a balance established by the Creator, which allows Justice to act according to the law, truth, honesty and trust. Unlike most Egyptian gods which were depicted with animal features, Maat is always anthropomorphic, and like most abstract concepts is personified as a woman, usually sitting on her heels, or standing. Maat is usually depicted as dressed in the long tight-fitting dress of the goddesses and as wearing the jewelry of the gods. Maat is the first divine dimension: she is the mother of Ra but she is also the daughter and wife of Ra and the mystical sister of the Pharaoh. Thus, Maat is fundamentally linked to the Pharaonic institution: the first duty of the pharaoh is to enforce the law of Maat throughout Egypt.

Dedication Of Per Ma'at Kemetic Temple | Per Ma'at Kemetic Temple Le concept de Maât / site "Immortelle Égypte" Un peu d'histoire » L'Égypte pharaonique : Pharaons et Reines La pensée philosophique des anciens Égyptiens était étroitement liée à leurs croyances religieuses. La société égyptienne était basée sur le concept de Maât qui signifie équilibre et ordre. Pour les anciens Égyptiens, la conduite idéale était à la fois pratique et religieuse. Les textes tels que le Livre des morts mettent en évidence les vertus de charité, de bienfaisance, de prudence, de justice sociale, de clémence et de quête du savoir. La déesse Maât est une entité symbolisant la norme universelle : l'équilibre établi par le Créateur, la justice qui permet d'agir selon le droit, l'ordre qui fait conformer les actes de chacun aux lois, la vérité, la droiture et la confiance. La déesse Maât Article original : sur Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Au-delà de cette première approche, le concept est un peu plus complexe. La mort et Maât À une époque plus tardive, maât signifie également la vérité ou la connaissance juste de soi.

Book of the Netherworld The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld is a two-part ancient Egyptian funerary text found on the second shrine in KV62, the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun. It is speculated that the book covers the creation and rebirth of the sun; however, the true meaning of the book is not known due to the use of cryptographic illustrations to preserve the secrecy of the formulae. The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld is broken into three sections that incorporate other funerary texts, such as the Book of the Dead and the Amduat. Other enigmatic books have been found in the tombs of Ramesses IX and Ramesses V. References[edit] Jump up ^ Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife by Hornung, Erik 1999Cornell University PressJump up ^ Life and Death of a Pharaoh: Tutankhamen by Desrochnes-Noblecourt published 1963 New YorkJump up ^ An Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld From A Shrine of Tutankhamun by Taylor Ray Ellison Bibliography[edit] Hornung, Erik (1999).

Maat ; Maât ; deesse Egypte Le concept de la Maât regroupe plusieurs aspects totalement indissociables dans l'imaginaire égyptien. Nous n'allons les séparer que pour des raisons didactiques. La Maât, "l'ordre juste du monde", l'équilibre, est au coeur de la compréhension de la civilisation égyptienne tout entière, et elle est le fondement de sa longévité. Elle est liée et confondue avec l'éthique (incluant la justice, la vérité), avec l'ordre universel (l'ordre cosmique, l'ordre social, l'ordre politique ) et avec l'intégration sociale basée sur la communication et la confiance. Fondement de l'identité culturelle égyptienne Maât est la grande création des penseurs de l'Ancien Empire. Initialement, la Maât n'est pas conceptualisée, elle est assimilée à - et manifestée par - la volonté du souverain. Le désordre et l'anarchie sociale, qui en ont été la conséquence, ont profondément marqué l'imaginaire égyptien. (1) La paresse - Faire la Maât. (3) L'avidité. (2) à la Première Période Intermédiaire.

Apep Development[edit] Ra was the solar deity, bringer of light, and thus the upholder of Ma'at. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra, and thus was given the title Enemy of Ra. Also, comparable hostile snakes as enemies of the sun god existed under other names (in the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts) already before the name Apep occurred. The etymology of his name (ꜥꜣpp) is perhaps to be sought in some west-semitic language where a word root ꜣpp meaning 'to slither' existed. Battles with Ra[edit] Set speared Apep The sun god Ra, in the form of Great Cat, slays the snake Apep[5] Tales of Apep's battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom.[6] Since everyone can see that the sun is not attacked by a giant snake during the day, every day, storytellers said that Apep must lie just below the horizon. In a bid to explain certain natural phenomena it was said that occasionally Apep got the upper hand. Worship[edit] Ra was worshipped, and Apep worshipped against. See also[edit]

concepts metaphysiques Les Egyptiens pensaient que tout individu se composait de sept éléments: le corps, le nom, l’ombre le cœur, l’akh, le ba et le ka; certains de ces termes sont malaisés à appréhender car ces notions n'existent pas dans notre concept corps, âme et esprit. Les termes de Akh, Ba et Ka désignent les composantes de la partie spirituelle des hommes Ba représenté sous la forme d'un oiseau Tombe N° 359 à Deir El Medina Représenté comme un oiseau à tête humaine, le ba est l'énergie de communication, de transformation et de déplacement de chaque personne. Le corps djet (ou sab ou khet) matériel, est le réceptacle des composantes de la personnalité telles que le ba, le ka, l'akh, l'ombre ou le nom. Ka du roi Hor (fin du moyen empire) Il représente le double immatériel de l'être et incarne les forces vitales de chacun. Le ka était présent aussi bien chez les dieux que chez les hommes. Akh Ce terme est souvent traduit par « transfiguré » faute de mieux. Pesée du coeur

Book of Gates Another rendering. Categories[edit] The most famous part of the Book of Gates today refers to the different races of humanity known to the Egyptians, dividing them up into four categories that are now conventionally labelled "Egyptians", "Asiatics", "Libyans", and "Nubians". These are depicted in procession entering the next world. The text and images associated with the Book of Gates appear in many tombs of the New Kingdom, including all the pharaonic tombs between Horemheb and Ramesses VII. The goddesses listed in the Book of Gates each have different titles, and wear different coloured clothes, but are identical in all other respects, wearing a five pointed star above their heads. The titles of the goddesses[edit] See also[edit] Book of the Dead References[edit] Jump up ^ Hornung, Erik. External links[edit] Sacred texts - Gate

Ancient Egyptian Gods | Ma'at Pharaohs also practiced this god’s concept of order during their reign. Pharaohs were expected to practice Ma’at, which meant it was their job to keep their nation in a state of order. This meant building temples, making offerings to the gods, keeping enemies at bay, and making honest decisions. Anything else was considered chaos and disorder. The people of Egypt believed that through Ma’at, the pharaoh kept Egypt stable and orderly. To some pharaohs, Ma’at was so intertwined into their kingdoms that some pharaohs changed their staffs’ names to accommodate this god. Ma’at’s Concept of Justice and Truth Ma’at is also known as the goddess of justice and truth. When a person died, their heart was weighed against the goddess’ feather on a huge scale. Ma’at in the Book of the Dead In the Book of the Dead, found in the Papyrus of Ani, is a spell called the “Forty-Two Declarations of Purity.”

Maat The Egyptian Goddess Areas of Influence: Maat the Egyptian Goddess stood for truth and justice. In fact the name Ma'at means truth in Egyptian. Her followers believed that after death their hearts would be weighed against her white feather of judgement. If the heart weighed the same they would be allowed to cross into the kingdom of Osiris (Paradise). However those that failed the test would be devoured by the crocodile headed God Ammut. She also represented the the primal laws of the universe that supported creation and prevented it from falling into choas. This Goddess helped the sun God Ra/Re steer his boat across the sky each day, guiding his direction. Her roles were later absorbed by the Goddess Isis. There is a temple dedicated to her in Carnac which unfortunately lies in ruins. Origins and Genealogy: The Goddess of truth, justice and reality was the daughter of Ra. Strengths: Balancing and just. Weaknesses: Very exacting in her standards. Maat's Symbolism Sacred Bird: Ostriches. Ma'ats Archetype The Judge:

La signification des couleurs pour les anciens Egyptiens dans l'Egypte ancienne "Parmi tous les systèmes d'écriture au monde, l'écriture hiéroglyphique est unique grâce à la possibilité supplémentaire qu'elle offre de différencier les signes par les couleurs. Ainsi, l'homme est de couleur rouge, la femme de couleur jaune, une convention que l'on retrouve également dans le domaine des arts plastiques de l'Egypte ancienne. Erik Hornung - "L'esprit du temps des Pharaons" le ciel l'eau les coiffures des personnages - masculins et féminins formes géométriques et édifices en plan le fer (matière) cornes des ongulés (également le vert) il arrive parfois que le corps du Dieu se pare de couleurs en rapport avec sa nature : ainsi les chairs d'Amon sont parfois bleues, comme il convient à une divinité en rapport avec le souffle et le vent Les trois teintes de bleu correspondent à trois symboliques différentes : le bleu clair évoque l'air, le ciel. univers aquatique du Nil image de la maternité la déesse Hathor est la déesse de la turquoise(mefkat) l'eau - parfois

Book of the Earth Fifth division: A scene from "Book of Caverns" from the tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall) Original Sources[edit] The scenes were found on all of the walls of the tombs of Ramesses VI and Ramesses VII. There were a few additional scenes found on the walls of other royal tombs extending from the New Kingdom to the Late Period, but since many scene from the Book were scattered around, the ordering of the illustrations is slightly convoluted.[1] Jean-François Champollion was the first one to publish the scenes and texts from the tomb of Ramesses VI in his Monuments de l'Egypte where he deciphered the hieroglyphs depicted in the tombs. Structure of the Book[edit] Although it is uncertain, it is believed that the surviving panels of the original composition were each divided into three registers. Scholars believe that the Book consists of two halves with one half containing scenes of punishment. The Book's Content[edit] Part E[edit] Part D[edit] Part C[edit] Part B[edit] Part A[edit]

Related: