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Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul
Ib (heart)[edit] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. Sheut (shadow)[edit] A person's shadow or silhouette, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present. The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black. Ren (name)[edit] Ba[edit] Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head. The 'Ba' (bꜣ) was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of 'personality'. In the Coffin Texts one form of the Ba that comes into existence after death is corporeal, eating, drinking and copulating. Ka[edit] Akh[edit] Related:  PENSEE EGYPTIENNE

Ancient Egyptian creation myths The sun rises over the circular mound of creation as goddesses pour out the primeval waters around it Ancient Egyptian creation myths are the ancient Egyptian accounts of the creation of the world. The Pyramid Texts, tomb wall decorations and writings, dating back to the Old Kingdom (2780 – 2250 B.C.E) have given us most of our information regarding early Egyptian creation myths.[1] These myths also form the earliest religious compilations in the world.[2] The ancient Egyptians had many creator gods and associated legends. Common elements[edit] The sun was also closely associated with creation, and it was said to have first risen from the mound, as the general sun-god Ra or as the god Khepri, who represented the newly-risen sun.[6] There were many versions of the sun's emergence, and it was said to have emerged directly from the mound or from a lotus flower that grew from the mound, in the form of a heron, falcon, scarab beetle, or human child[6][7] Cosmogonies[edit] Hermopolis[edit]

Le concept de Maât / site "Immortelle Égypte" Un peu d'histoire » L'Égypte pharaonique : Pharaons et Reines La pensée philosophique des anciens Égyptiens était étroitement liée à leurs croyances religieuses. La société égyptienne était basée sur le concept de Maât qui signifie équilibre et ordre. Pour les anciens Égyptiens, la conduite idéale était à la fois pratique et religieuse. Les textes tels que le Livre des morts mettent en évidence les vertus de charité, de bienfaisance, de prudence, de justice sociale, de clémence et de quête du savoir. La déesse Maât est une entité symbolisant la norme universelle : l'équilibre établi par le Créateur, la justice qui permet d'agir selon le droit, l'ordre qui fait conformer les actes de chacun aux lois, la vérité, la droiture et la confiance. La déesse Maât Article original : sur Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Au-delà de cette première approche, le concept est un peu plus complexe. La mort et Maât À une époque plus tardive, maât signifie également la vérité ou la connaissance juste de soi.

Nile Delta Delta produced by the Nile River at its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea Coordinates: 30°54′N 31°7′E / 30.900°N 31.117°E / 30.900; 31.117 NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false color) The Nile Delta at night as seen from the ISS in October 2010. The Nile Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta an-Nīl or simply الدلتا ad-Delta) is the delta formed in Lower Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. Geography[edit] From north to south, the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Suez Canal is east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala in the north-east of the delta. The Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. In modern day, the outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. History[edit] Ancient branches of the Nile[edit] Population[edit]

Sekhmet In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet /ˈsɛkˌmɛt/[1] or Sachmis (/ˈsækmɨs/; also spelled Sakhmet, Sekhet, or Sakhet, among other spellings) was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing for Upper Egypt, when the kingdom of Egypt was divided. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath formed the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare. Sekhmet also is a Solar deity, sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra and often associated with the goddesses Hathor and Bast. She bears the Solar disk and the uraeus which associates her with Wadjet and royalty. Etymology[edit] Sekhmet's name comes from the Ancient Egyptian word "sekhem" which means "power or might". History[edit] Bust of the Goddess Sakhmet, ca. 1390-1352 B.C.E. The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown from a relief at the Temple of Kom Ombo. Festivals and evolution[edit] In popular culture[edit]

Maat (Egyptian Goddess) Maat. In Egyptian mythology, Maat is the goddess of order, the world's balance, equity, peace, truth and justice. It is the antithesis of Isfet (the god of chaos, injustice, social disorder). Maat is an entity symbolizing the universal standard: a balance established by the Creator, which allows Justice to act according to the law, truth, honesty and trust. Unlike most Egyptian gods which were depicted with animal features, Maat is always anthropomorphic, and like most abstract concepts is personified as a woman, usually sitting on her heels, or standing. Maat is usually depicted as dressed in the long tight-fitting dress of the goddesses and as wearing the jewelry of the gods. Maat is the first divine dimension: she is the mother of Ra but she is also the daughter and wife of Ra and the mystical sister of the Pharaoh. Thus, Maat is fundamentally linked to the Pharaonic institution: the first duty of the pharaoh is to enforce the law of Maat throughout Egypt.

Afterlife Ancient Egyptian papyrus depicting the journey into the afterlife. Paradise of Bhaishajyaguru discovered at the Mogao Caves. [edit] In metaphysical models, theists generally believe some sort of afterlife awaits people when they die. Members of some generally non-theistic religions such as Buddhism, tend to believe in an afterlife, but without reference to a God. The Sadducees were an ancient Jewish sect that generally believed that there was a God but no afterlife. Many religions, whether they believe in the soul's existence in another world like Christianity, Islam and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, believe that one's status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. Reincarnation[edit] Reincarnation refers to an afterlife concept found among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs, Rosicrucians, Theosophists, Spiritists, and Wiccans. Heaven and hell[edit] Limbo[edit] Purgatory[edit] Ancient religions[edit]

Ammit Ammit (/ˈæmɨt/; "devourer" or "soul-eater"; also spelled Ammut or Ahemait) was a female demon in ancient Egyptian religion with a body that was part lion, hippopotamus and crocodile—the three largest "man-eating" animals known to ancient Egyptians. A funerary deity, her titles included "Devourer of the Dead", "Eater of Hearts", and "Great of Death". Ammit lived near the scales of justice in Duat, the Egyptian underworld. In the Hall of Two Truths, Anubis weighed the heart of a person against the feather of Ma'at, the goddess of truth, which was depicted as an ostrich feather (the feather was often pictured in Ma'at's headdress). If the heart was judged to be not pure, Ammit would devour it, and the person undergoing judgement was not allowed to continue their voyage towards Osiris and immortality. Ammit was not worshipped; instead she embodied all that the Egyptians feared, threatening to bind them to eternal restlessness if they did not follow the principle of Ma'at. See also[edit]

concepts metaphysiques Les Egyptiens pensaient que tout individu se composait de sept éléments: le corps, le nom, l’ombre le cœur, l’akh, le ba et le ka; certains de ces termes sont malaisés à appréhender car ces notions n'existent pas dans notre concept corps, âme et esprit. Les termes de Akh, Ba et Ka désignent les composantes de la partie spirituelle des hommes Ba représenté sous la forme d'un oiseau Tombe N° 359 à Deir El Medina Représenté comme un oiseau à tête humaine, le ba est l'énergie de communication, de transformation et de déplacement de chaque personne. Le corps djet (ou sab ou khet) matériel, est le réceptacle des composantes de la personnalité telles que le ba, le ka, l'akh, l'ombre ou le nom. Ka du roi Hor (fin du moyen empire) Il représente le double immatériel de l'être et incarne les forces vitales de chacun. Le ka était présent aussi bien chez les dieux que chez les hommes. Akh Ce terme est souvent traduit par « transfiguré » faute de mieux. Pesée du coeur

Underworld Yggdrasil, a modern attempt to reconstruct the Norse world tree which connects the heavens, the world, and the underworld. The legs of the god Vishnu as the Cosmic Man depict earth and the seven realms of the Hindu underworld of Patala. The feet rest on cosmic serpent Shesha. The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.[1] Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld. The concept of an underworld is found in almost every civilization, and "may be as old as humanity itself".[2] Common features of underworld myths are accounts of living people making journeys to the underworld, often for some heroic purpose. By mythology[edit] This list includes underworlds in various mythology, with links to corresponding articles. Underworld figures[edit] This list includes rulers or guardians of the underworld in various mythologies, with links to corresponding articles. See also[edit] References[edit] ^ "Underworld".

Thoth Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma'at) who stood on either side of Ra's boat.[5] In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes,[6] the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science,[7] and the judgment of the dead.[8] Name[edit] Etymology[edit] The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī, based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Θώθ [tʰɔːtʰ] Thōth or Theut and the fact that it evolved into Sahidic Coptic variously as Thoout, Thōth, Thoot, Thaut as well as Bohairic Coptic Thōout. According to Theodor Hopfner,[12] Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the Ibis although normally written as hbj. Further names and spellings[edit] Depictions[edit] Attributes[edit] Mythology[edit] History[edit]

La signification des couleurs pour les anciens Egyptiens dans l'Egypte ancienne "Parmi tous les systèmes d'écriture au monde, l'écriture hiéroglyphique est unique grâce à la possibilité supplémentaire qu'elle offre de différencier les signes par les couleurs. Ainsi, l'homme est de couleur rouge, la femme de couleur jaune, une convention que l'on retrouve également dans le domaine des arts plastiques de l'Egypte ancienne. Erik Hornung - "L'esprit du temps des Pharaons" le ciel l'eau les coiffures des personnages - masculins et féminins formes géométriques et édifices en plan le fer (matière) cornes des ongulés (également le vert) il arrive parfois que le corps du Dieu se pare de couleurs en rapport avec sa nature : ainsi les chairs d'Amon sont parfois bleues, comme il convient à une divinité en rapport avec le souffle et le vent Les trois teintes de bleu correspondent à trois symboliques différentes : le bleu clair évoque l'air, le ciel. univers aquatique du Nil image de la maternité la déesse Hathor est la déesse de la turquoise(mefkat) l'eau - parfois

Mendes Place in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt The city is located in the eastern Nile delta ( WikiMiniAtlas History[edit] In ancient times, Mendes was a famous city that attracted the notice of most ancient geographers and historians, including Herodotus (ii. 42, 46. 166), Diodorus (i. 84), Strabo (xvii. p. 802), Mela (i. 9 § 9), Pliny the Elder (v. 10. s. 12), Ptolemy (iv. 5. § 51), and Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v.). Religion[edit] The chief deities of Mendes were the ram deity Banebdjedet (lit. The ram deity of Mendes was described by Herodotus in his History[2] as being represented with the head and fleece of a goat: "...whereas anyone with a sanctuary of Mendes or who comes from the province of Mendes, will have nothing to do with (sacrificing) goats, but uses sheep as his sacrificial animals... Ruins[edit] A cemetery of sacred rams was discovered in the northwest corner of Tell El-Ruba. Notes[edit] ^ Fletcher, Joann (2008). References[edit] External links[edit]

Egyptian mythology Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion. Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art, particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts, and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. The details of these sacred events differ greatly from one text to another and often seem contradictory. Egyptian myths are primarily metaphorical, translating the essence and behavior of deities into terms that humans can understand. Mythology profoundly influenced Egyptian culture. Origins[edit] The development of Egyptian myth is difficult to trace. Another possible source for mythology is ritual. Definition and scope[edit] Content and meaning[edit] Sources[edit]