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Persian mythology

Persian mythology
Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings. Drawn from the legendary past of Iran, they reflect the attitudes of the society to which they first belonged - attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, the actions of the gods, yazats (lesser gods), and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures. Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture and our understanding of them is increased when we consider them within the context of Iranian history. For this purpose we must ignore modern political boundaries and look at historical developments in the Greater Iran, a vast area covering parts of Central Asia well beyond the frontiers of present-day Iran. The geography of this region, with its high mountain ranges, plays a significant role in many of the mythological stories. Key texts[edit] The central collection of Persian mythology is the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, written over a thousand years ago. Related:  Arabian, Hindi & Persian (pre Iraq & Iran)

Vedic mythology Vedic mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic religion and Vedic literature, alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda. The central myth at the base of Vedic ritual surrounds Indra who, inebriated with Soma, slays the dragon (ahi) Vrtra, freeing the rivers, the cows and Dawn. It has directly[dubious ] contributed to the evolution and development of later Hinduism and Hindu mythology. Vedic mythology[edit] The Vedas in Puranic mythology[edit] The Vishnu Purana attributes the current arrangement of four Vedas to the mythical sage Vedavyasa.[2] Puranic tradition also postulates a single original Veda that, in varying accounts, was divided into three or four parts. Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva constitute the "Four Vedas".[3] The Rig Veda (mantras) is a collection of inspired songs or hymns and is a main source of information on the Rig Vedic civilization. See also[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] Buitenen, J.

Armenian mythology Armenian mythology was strongly influenced by Zoroastrianism, with deities such as Aramazd, Mihr or Anahit, as well as Assyrian traditions, such as Barsamin, but there are fragmentary traces of native traditions, such as Hayk or Vahagn and Astghik. According to De Morgan there are signs which indicate that the Armenians were initially nature worshipers and that this faith in time was transformed to the worship of national gods, of which many were the equivalents of the gods in the Roman, Persian and Greek cultures. Georg Brandes described the Armenian gods in his book: “When Armenia accepted Christianity, it was not only the temples which were destroyed, but also the songs and poems about the old gods and heroes that the people sang. We have only rare segments of these songs and poems, segments which bear witness of a great spiritual wealth and the power of creation of this people and these alone are sufficient reason enough for recreating the temples of the old Armenian gods. Totemism

Scythian religion A collection of drawings of Scythian stelae, ranging from ca. 600 BC to AD 300. Many of them depict warriors, apparently representing the deceased buried in the kurgan, holding a drinking horn in their right hand. Scythian religion refers to the mythology, ritual practices and beliefs of the Scythians, an ancient Iranian people who dominated Central Asia and the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe throughout Classical Antiquity. What little is known of the religion is drawn from the work of the 5th century Greek historian and ethnographer Herodotus. Scythian religion is assumed to have been related to the earlier Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, and to have influenced later Slavic, Hungarian and Turkic mythologies, as well as some contemporary Eastern Iranian and Ossetian traditions. Archaeological context[edit] The primary archaeological context of horse sacrifice are burials, notably chariot burials, but graves with horse remains reach from the Eneolithic well into historical times.

Kurdish mythology Kurdish mythology is the collective term for the beliefs and practices of the culturally, ethnically or linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Kurdistan mountains of northwestern Zagros near northern Mesopotamia. In Kurdish mythology, Kurds are descended of people who fled to the mountains to save their lives from the oppression of a king named Zahhak. It is believed that the people, like Kaveh the Blacksmith who fled and hid in the mountains over the course of history created a Kurdish ethnicity. (Bulloch and Morris. p50) Mountains, to this day, are still important geographical and symbolic figures in Kurdish life. References[edit] See also[edit] Iranian mythology

Egyptian mythology Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion. Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art, particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts, and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. The details of these sacred events differ greatly from one text to another and often seem contradictory. Mythology profoundly influenced Egyptian culture. Origins[edit] The development of Egyptian myth is difficult to trace. Another possible source for mythology is ritual. In private rituals, which are often called "magical", the myth and the ritual are particularly closely tied. Definition and scope[edit] Content and meaning[edit] Sources[edit] Religious sources[edit]

Arabian mythology Arabian mythology is the ancient, pre-Islamic beliefs of the Arab people. Prior to Islam the Kaaba of Mecca was covered in symbols representing the myriad demons, djinn, demigods, or simply tribal gods and other assorted deities which represented the polytheistic culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. It has been inferred from this plurality an exceptionally broad context in which mythology could flourish.[1] Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols, especially near the Kaaba, which is asserted to have contained up to 360.[1] Gods[edit] The main god in the Arabian peninsula was Hubal (Arabic: هبل‎), who is regarded as the most notable and chief of the gods. The three daughters of Hubal, and chief goddesses of Meccan Arabian mythology, were Al-lāt, Al-‘Uzzá, and Manāt. Other notable gods Supernatural beings[edit] Spirits[edit] Jinn (also called djinn or genies, Arabic: جن‎ jinn) are supernatural creatures which possess free will, and can be either good or evil.

Hittite mythology Seated deity, late Hittite Empire (13th century BC) The understanding of Hittite mythology depends on readings of surviving stone carvings, deciphering of the iconology represented in seal stones, interpreting ground plans of temples: additionally, there are a few images of deities, for the Hittites often worshipped their gods through Huwasi stones, which represented deities and were treated as sacred objects. Gods were often depicted standing on the backs of their respective beasts, or may have been identifiable in their animal form.[3] Overview[edit] Priests and cult sites[edit] The liminal figure mediating between the intimately connected worlds of gods and mankind was the king and priest; in a ritual dating from the Hittite Old Kingdom period: The gods, the Sun-God and the Storm-God, have entrusted to me, the king, the land and my household, so that I, the king, should protect my land and my household, for myself.[5] Deities and their myths[edit] List of Hittite deities[15][edit]

Iranian religions Several important religions and religious movements originated in Greater Iran, that is, among speakers of various Iranian languages and hence with an Iranian cultural background. Antiquity[edit] Proto-Indo-Iranian religionMithraismZoroastrianismZurvanism: By late Achaemenid times, Zoroastrianism was also evident as Zurvanism (Zurvanite Zoroastrianism), a monist dualism that had a following as late as the Sassanid era.Mandaeism: A gnostic monotheism of (at the latest) the 1st century CE observed Mandā d-Heyyi - "Knowledge of Life". Mandaean theology is based more on a common heritage than on any set of religious creeds and doctrines.Manichaeism: 3rd century ditheistic gnosticism that may have been influenced by Mandaeism. Medieval period[edit] The early Islamic period saw the development of Persian mysticism, a traditional interpretation of existence, life and love with Perso-Islamic Sufi monotheism as its practical aspect. Modern[edit] See also[edit] Religion of Iranian-Americans

Islamic mythology Islamic mythology is the body of traditional narratives associated with Islam from a mythographical perspective. Many Muslims regard these narratives as historical and sacred and believe they contain profound truths. These traditional narratives include, but are not limited to, the stories contained in the Qur'an. Followers of Islam (Muslims) believe that Islam, in its current form, was established by God, through the prophet Muhammed, who lived in the 6th and 7th centuries CE.[1] Muslims believe that all true prophets (including Musa and Isa) preached Islamic principles that were applicable in their time but when the times changed and people needed new guidance for new situations, God appointed a new prophet with a new code of life that could guide them. Central Islam stories[edit] Life of Muhammad[edit] The Kaaba[edit] According to Islamic tradition, God instructed Adam to construct a building to be the earthly counterpart of the House of Heaven. Biblical stories in the Qur'an[edit]

Canaanite religion Canaanite religion is the name for the group of Ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era. Canaanite religion was polytheistic, and in some cases monolatristic. Beliefs[edit] Pantheon[edit] Ba'al with raised arm, 14th-12th century BC, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit), Louvre A great number of deities were worshiped by the followers of the Canaanite religion; this is a partial listing: Afterlife; Cult of the Dead[edit] Cosmology[edit] So far, none of the inscribed tablets found in 1929 in the Canaanite city of Ugarit (destroyed ca. 1200 BC) has revealed a cosmology. From the union of El Elyon and his consort were born Uranus (Pronounced Oo(as in room)-ran-aws) and Ge (Pronounced Yee), Greek names for the "Heaven" and the "Earth". Mythology[edit] History[edit] The Canaanites[edit] Some[who?] Influences[edit] Contact with other areas[edit] Hebrew Bible[edit] Sources[edit]

Hindu mythology Hindu mythology is a large body of traditional narratives related to Hinduism as contained in Sanskrit literature (such as the epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, and the Vedas), Ancient Tamil literature (such as the Sangam literature and Periya Puranam), several other works, most notably the Bhagavata Purana, claiming the status of a Fifth Veda and other religious regional literature of South Asia. As such, it is a subset of Indian and Nepali culture. Rather than one consistent, monolithic structure, it is a range of diverse traditions, developed by different sects, people and philosophical schools, in different regions and at different times, which are not necessarily held by all Hindus to be literal accounts of historical events, but are taken to have deeper, often symbolic, meaning, and which have been given a complex range of interpretations.[1] Sources[edit] Vedas[edit] Itihasa and Puranas[edit] The epics themselves are set in different Yugas, or periods of time.

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