Knowledge representation and reasoning Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) devoted to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets. Overview Knowledge-representation is the field of artificial intelligence that focuses on designing computer representations that capture information about the world that can be used to solve complex problems. This hypothesis was not always taken as a given by researchers. History Characteristics
Color Theory A page from the "Causes of Color" exhibit... Color theory is a human construct. We need ways to define what we mean by color, and how colors can be ordered, related to each other, and adjusted to become new colors. Color theory attempts to meld together the facts we have about color in a way that gives us common ground to discuss and use colors. Color is a perception, a response of the brain to data received by the visual systems. What is real is that objects emit light in various mixtures of wavelengths. Early studies of the nature of color The detailed understanding of the science of color began in 1666, when Isaac Newton, using two prisms, observed that white light was composed of all the colors of the rainbow, and could be identified and ordered.
The Lost Doctrines of Christianity: The Secret Teachings Ancient writings were discovered in 1945 which revealed more information about the concept of reincarnation from the sect of Christians called "Gnostics". This sect was ultimately destroyed by the Roman orthodox church, their followers burned at the stake and their writings wiped out. The writings included some long lost gospels, some of which were written earlier than the known gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Gnostic Christians claimed to possess the correct definition of "resurrection" - based on Jesus' secret teachings, handed down to them by the apostles. The existence of a secret tradition can be found in the New Testament: "He [Jesus] told them, ' The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. "No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began." (1 Corinthians 2:7) The New Testament talks about this gnosis (knowledge): "When you see your likeness, you are happy. Jesus flatly tells Nicodemus:
Sociology of knowledge The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. It is not a specialized area of sociology but instead deals with broad fundamental questions about the extent and limits of social influences on individual's lives and the social-cultural basics of our knowledge about the world. Complementary to the sociology of knowledge is the sociology of ignorance including the study of nescience, ignorance, knowledge gaps or non-knowledge as inherent features of knowledge making.   The sociology of knowledge was pioneered primarily by the sociologists Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Their works deal directly with how conceptual thought, language, and logic could be influenced by the sociological milieu out of which they arise. Schools Émile Durkheim Karl Mannheim Robert K.
Computer - Kurs04_4- Endnote English In EndNote there are effective tools available to manage the database: The tool Find Full Text search in Internet and makes full text available as attachment. The Term Lists help entering text to optain a consistent database Duplicate references can be detected. The text can be changed in the fields simultaneously in many selected references. Essential to a structured database is the creation of groups to which references can be assigned. Find Full Text In Find Full Text is a EndNote feature, you are able to access the full text (entire article) and combined it with a reference. Open the reference (Double-clicking) Menu Reference : Find Full Text... Note: The search can take a very long time! Tips:At University of Tübingen the access to full text (pdf-file of the article) is controlled by IP-number. To configure the Find Full Text. Menu Edit : Prefereces : Find Full text : Open URL Path Typical LinkResolver are: MPG: BVB: Groups
Gnostics, Gnostic Gospels, & Gnosticism A one-sentence description of Gnosticism: a religion that differentiates the evil god of this world (who is identified with the god of the Old Testament) from a higher more abstract God revealed by Jesus Christ, a religion that regards this world as the creation of a series of evil archons/powers who wish to keep the human soul trapped in an evil physical body, a religion that preaches a hidden wisdom or knowledge only to a select group as necessary for salvation or escape from this world. The term "gnostic" derives from "gnosis," which means "knowledge" in Greek. The Gnostics believed that they were privy to a secret knowledge about the divine, hence the name. (Huxley coined "agnosticism" on the basis that all knowledge must be based on reason. We cannot rationally claim to have access to knowledge that is beyond the powers of the intellect.) There are numerous references to the Gnostics in second century proto-orthodox literature. Here are some books about Gnostics and Gnosticism.
Information literacy The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as " ... the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand." Other definitions incorporate aspects of "skepticism, judgement, free thinking, questioning, and understanding A number of efforts have been made to better define the concept and its relationship to other skills and forms of literacy. History of the concept The phrase information literacy first appeared in print in a 1974 report by Paul G. The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy released a report on January 10, 1989, outlining the importance of information literacy, opportunities to develop information literacy, and an Information Age School. The Alexandria Proclamation linked Information literacy with lifelong learning. On May 28, 2009, U.S. Presidential Committee on Information Literacy
Computer - Kurs04_3- Endnote In EndNote stehen effektive Werkzeuge für die Verwaltung der Datenbank zur Verfügung : Den Volltext, das ist meist eine pdf-Datei, kann im Internet gesucht werden. Bei einer pdf-Datei wird die Datei als Anhang mit der Referenz verbunden. Die Term Lists helfen bei der Eingabe eine konsistente Datenbank zu erhalten. Doppelte Referenzen lassen sich aufspüren. Es kann der Text in den Feldern in vielen Referenzen gleichzeitig mit einem Klick geändert werden. Wesentlich für eine strukturierte Datenbank ist die Erstellung von Gruppen, denen Referenzen zugewiesen werden kann. Durch die Indizierung der Datenbank kann eine schnelle Suche durchgeführt werden. Find Full Text In EndNote ist eine Funktion eingebaut, die Volltexte mit einer Referenz verbinden.Beachte, nicht jeder Text ist als Volltext zugänglich. Referenz öffnen Menü Reference : Find Full Text... Achtung: Die Suche kann sehr lange dauern! Die Find Full Text Suche muss eventuell konfiguriert werden. Typische LinkResolver sind: Term Lists
Top Ten Powerful Law of Attraction Tips: Simple Secrets to Attract What You Want I have gathered some of the most potent tips to create your reality that I know of. The Secret and the Law of Attraction teach us to visualize and feel our goals. This is a start, but if we really want to manifest more of our desires, more wealth, better and more conscious relationships, and all the goals in our heart that make us want to celebrate life, we need to relinquish EVERYTHING which does not serve us and step into a realm of true magic where our attraction power is natural and effortless. I’ve gathered ten of the best tips I know to support this inner power. Let’s explore them now: 1. Change comes with flow and contentment. Your only job is to be in the Flow of Life by consciously experiencing your joy and your clarity about your deepest mission and Higher Vision. This will activate the Law of Attraction and Universal Flow, and it will improve the circumstances of your life immensely. 2. Try this: Make an intention right now to do something very simple and easy. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
State of the art The term "state of the art" refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time. It also refers to the level of development (as of a device, procedure, process, technique, or science) reached at any particular time as a result of the common methodologies employed. The term has been used since 1910, and has become both a common term in advertising and marketing, and a legally significant phrase with respect to both patent law and tort liability. Origin and history Over time, use of the term increased in all fields where this kind of art has a significant role. In this relation it has been quoted by the author that "Although eighteenth century writers did not use the term, there was indeed in existence a collection of scientific and engineering knowledge and expertise that can be identified as the state of the art for that time". Legal importance Patent law Tort liability See also