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Personality disorder

Personality disorder
Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterised by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible and are associated with significant distress or disability.[1] The definitions may vary some according to other sources.[2][3] Official criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, and in the mental and behavioral disorders section of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, published by the World Health Organization. The DSM-5 published in 2013 now lists personality disorders in exactly the same way as other mental disorders, rather than on a separate 'axis' as previously.[4] Classification[edit] World Health Organization[edit] Related:  mental disorders

Adjustment disorder The condition is different from anxiety disorder, which lacks the presence of a stressor, or post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder, which usually are associated with a more intense stressor. Signs and symptoms[edit] Suicidal behavior is prominent among people with AD of all ages, and up to one-fifth of adolescent suicide victims may have an adjustment disorder. Risk factors[edit] Various factors have been found to be more associated with a diagnosis of AD than other axis I disorders, including:[14] younger agemore identified psychosocial and environmental problemsincreased suicidal behaviour, more likely to be rated as improved by the time of discharge from mental healthcareless frequent previous psychiatric historyshorter length of treatment Those exposed to repeated trauma are at greater risk, even if that trauma is in the distant past. A stressor is generally an event of a serious, unusual nature that an individual or group of individuals experience. Adulthood:

Tardive dyskinesia Tardive dyskinesia /ˈtɑrdɨv ˌdɪskɨˈniːʒə/ is a difficult-to-treat and often incurable form of dyskinesia, a disorder resulting in involuntary, repetitive body movements. In this form of dyskinesia, the involuntary movements are tardive, meaning they have a slow or belated onset.[1] This neurological disorder most frequently occurs as the result of long-term or high-dose use of antipsychotic drugs,[Note 1] or in children and infants as a side effect from usage of drugs for gastrointestinal disorders.[Note 2][2] Features[edit] Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements. GrimacingTongue movementsLip smackingLip puckeringPursing of the lipsExcessive eye blinking Rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, torso, and fingers may also occur.[4] In some cases, an individual's legs can be so affected that walking becomes difficult or impossible.[5] These symptoms are the opposite of patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Cause[edit]

Child abuse Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children.[1] In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. In Western countries, preventing child abuse is considered a high priority, and detailed laws and policies exist to address this issue. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. Douglas J. §Types[edit]

Impulse control disorder Impulse control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, urge or impulse that may harm oneself or others. Many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, paraphilias, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) published in May 2013 includes a new chapter (not in DSM-IV-TR) on Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders covering disorders "characterized by problems in emotional and behavioral self-control".[1] It also includes Impulse-Control Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, which encompasses intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, and kleptomania.[1] Classification[edit] Pathological gambling[edit] Pyromania[edit] Kleptomania[edit]

Sleep disorder A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues, from teeth grinding (bruxism) to night terrors. When a person suffers from difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep with no obvious cause, it is referred to as insomnia.[1] Dyssomnia refers to a group of sleep disorders with the symptoms of trouble falling asleep or maintaining sleep, which may cause an elevated sense of sleepiness during the day. In addition, sleep disorders may also cause sufferers to sleep excessively, a condition known as hypersomnia. Common disorders[edit] The most common sleep disorders include: Types[edit] Dyssomnias - A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnia or insomnia. Sleep medicine[edit]

Sexual dysfunction Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm. According to the DSM-5, sexual dysfunction requires a person to feel extreme distress and interpersonal strain for a minimum of 6 months (excluding substance or medication-induced sexual dysfunction).[1] Sexual dysfunctions can have a profound impact on an individual's perceived quality of sexual life.[2] Categories[edit] Sexual dysfunction disorders may be classified into four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasm disorders and pain disorders. Sexual desire disorders[edit] Sexual desire disorders or decreased libido are characterised by a lack or absence for some period of time of sexual desire or libido for sexual activity or of sexual fantasies. Sexual arousal disorders[edit] Erectile dysfunction[edit] Premature ejaculation[edit] Orgasm disorders[edit]

Gender identity disorder Gender identity disorder (GID) or gender dysphoria is the formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe people who experience significant dysphoria (discontent) with the sex they were assigned at birth and/or the gender roles associated with that sex. Evidence suggests that people who identify with a gender different than the one they were assigned at birth may do so not just due to psychological or behavioral causes, but also biological ones related to their genetics, the makeup of their brains, or prenatal exposure to hormones.[1] Estimates of the prevalence of gender identity disorder range from a lower bound of 1:2000 (or about 0.05%) in the Netherlands and Belgium[2] to 0.5% in Massachusetts[3] to 1.2% in New Zealand.[4] Research indicates people who transition in adulthood are up to three times more likely to be male assigned at birth, but that among people transitioning in childhood the sex ratio is close to 1:1.[5] Signs and symptoms[edit] Causes[edit]

Dissociation (psychology) In psychology, the term dissociation describes a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experience. The major characteristic of all dissociative phenomena involves a detachment from reality, rather than a loss of reality as in psychosis.[1][2][3][4] Dissociative experiences are further characterized by the varied maladaptive mental constructions of an individual's natural imaginative capacity.[citation needed] More pathological dissociation involves dissociative disorders, including dissociative fugue and depersonalization disorder with or without alterations in personal identity or sense of self. Although some dissociative disruptions involve amnesia, other dissociative events do not.[15] Dissociative disorders are typically experienced as startling, autonomous intrusions into the person's usual ways of responding or functioning.

Factitious disorder A factitious disorder is a condition in which a person acts as if they have an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms. Factitious disorder by proxy is a condition in which a person deliberately produces, feigns, or exaggerates symptoms in a person in their care. Münchausen syndrome, a severe form of factitious disorder, was the first kind identified, and was for a period the umbrella term for all such disorders.[1] People with this condition may produce symptoms by contaminating urine samples, taking hallucinogens, injecting themselves with bacteria to produce infections, and other similar behaviour. They might be motivated to perpetrate factitious disorders either as a patient or by proxy as a caregiver to gain any variety of benefits including attention, nurturance, sympathy, and leniency that are seen as not obtainable any other way. Types[edit] DSM-IV differentiates among three types: Motives[edit] Differential diagnosis[edit] Criteria[edit] See also[edit]

Somatoform disorder A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,[1][2][3] is a mental disorder characterized by symptoms that suggest physical illness or injury – symptoms that cannot be explained fully by a general medical condition or by the direct effect of a substance, and are not attributable to another mental disorder (e.g., panic disorder).[4] In people who have a somatic symptom disorder, medical test results are either normal or do not explain the person's symptoms, and history and physical examination do not indicate the presence of a medical condition that could cause them. Patients with this disorder often become worried about their health because doctors are unable to find a cause for their symptoms. This may cause severe distress. Preoccupation with the symptoms may portray a patient's exaggerated belief in the severity of their ill-health.[5] Symptoms are sometimes similar to those of other illnesses and may last for several years. Recognized disorders[edit]

Anxiety disorder Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by excessive feelings of anxiety and fear,[1] where anxiety is worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.[1] These feelings may cause physical symptoms such as a racing heart and shakiness.[1] There are various forms of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorder, and panic disorder. While each has its own characteristics and symptoms, they all include symptoms of anxiety.[2] Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use including alcohol and caffeine. They often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, certain personality disorders, and eating disorders. Common treatment options include lifestyle changes, therapy, and medications. Classification[edit] Generalized anxiety disorder[edit] Phobias[edit] Panic disorder[edit] Agoraphobia[edit] Social anxiety disorder[edit] Separation anxiety[edit]

Mood disorder Mood disorders fall into the basic groups of elevated mood, such as mania or hypomania; depressed mood, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) (commonly called clinical depression, unipolar depression, or major depression); and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression). There are several sub-types of depressive disorders or psychiatric syndromes featuring less severe symptoms such as dysthymic disorder (similar to but milder than MDD) and cyclothymic disorder (similar to but milder than BD).[2][page needed] Mood disorders may also be substance induced or occur in response to a medical condition. Classification[edit] Depressive disorders[edit] Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly called major depression, unipolar depression, or clinical depression, wherein a person has one or more major depressive episodes. Diagnosticians recognize several subtypes or course specifiers:

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