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Elementary Concepts in Statistics

Elementary Concepts in Statistics
In this introduction, we will briefly discuss those elementary statistical concepts that provide the necessary foundations for more specialized expertise in any area of statistical data analysis. The selected topics illustrate the basic assumptions of most statistical methods and/or have been demonstrated in research to be necessary components of our general understanding of the "quantitative nature" of reality (Nisbett, et al., 1987). We will focus mostly on the functional aspects of the concepts discussed and the presentation will be very short. What are Variables? Variables are things that we measure, control, or manipulate in research. Correlational vs. Most empirical research belongs clearly to one of these two general categories. Dependent vs. Independent variables are those that are manipulated whereas dependent variables are only measured or registered. Measurement Scales Nominal variables allow for only qualitative classification. Relations between Variables .005 or p

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SPSS, Tutorial, deutsch, Literatur zu SPSS, Tutorials, Dialogfelder, Dialogfeld, Flash Tutorial, Statistik, FU, Berlin, Informationen zu SPSS-Lizenzen SPSS-Tutorials (deutsch) Übersicht zu den vorhandenen Flash-Animationen Datenzugang: Aufbau einer Datendatei Datenimport über die ODBC-Schnittstelle Datenaufbereitung: Berechnen von Informationen Klassifizieren von Variablen über Umkodieren Umkodieren von Variablen Selektieren I - Vergleichsoperatoren Selektieren II - logische Operatoren Selektieren III - komplexe Bedingungen Datenanalyse: Deskriptive Statistik Testen I - Testen auf Unterschiede (t-Test unabh. Stichproben - U-Test) Testen II - Testen auf Unterschiede (t-Test abh. Zum effektiven Umgang mit dem Programm: Editieren von Tabellen im Ausgabefenster Verwendung von Syntaxanweisungen Verwendung von Syntaxanweisungen - erweiterte Version SPSS und R - Installation und Nutzung SPSS und R mit Grafik - Demonstration der Anwendung Verwendung von Makros Verwendung von Skripten Datenzugang Tutorial zum Aufbau einer Datendatei (Flash-Animation) Tutorial zum Datenimport über die ODBC-Schnittstelle (Flash-Animation) Datenaufbereitung Testen

Against All Odds: Inside Statistics 1. What Is Statistics? Statistics is the art and science of gathering, organizing, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. And without rudimentary knowledge of how it works, people can't make informed judgments and evaluations of a wide variety of things encountered in daily life. Go to this unit. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

StatNotes: Topics in Multivariate Analysis, from North Carolina State University Looking for Statnotes? StatNotes, viewed by millions of visitors for the last decade, has now been converted to e-books in Adobe Reader and Kindle Reader format, under the auspices of Statistical Associates Publishers. The e-book format serves many purposes: readers may cite sources by title, publisher, year, and (in Adobe Reader format) page number; e-books may be downloaded to PCs, Ipads, smartphones, and other devices for reference convenience; and intellectual property is protected against piracy, which had become epidemic. Click here to go to the new Statnotes website at . Or you may use the Google search box below to search the website, which contains free e-books and web pages with overview summaries and tables of contents. Or you may click on a specific topic below to view the specific overview/table of contents page.

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Using SPSS for Nominal Data (Binomial and Chi-Squared Tests) Using SPSS for Nominal Data:Binomial and Chi-Squared Tests This tutorial will show you how to use SPSS version 12.0 to perform binomial tests, Chi-squared test with one variable, and Chi-squared test of independence of categorical variables on nominally scaled data. This tutorial assumes that you have: Downloaded the standard class data set (click on the link and save the data file) Started SPSS (click on Start | All Programs | SPSS for Windows | SPSS 12.0 for Windows) Loaded the standard data set Binomial Test The binomial test is useful for determining if the proportion of people in one of two categories is different from a specified amount. SPSS assumes that the variable that specifies the category is numeric. As always, we will perform the basic steps in hypothesis testing: Write the hypotheses: H0: P = .5 H1: P ≠ .5 Where P is the proportion of people who selected cats.Determine if the hypotheses are one- or two-tailed. The output tells us that there are two groups: DOG and CAT.

HyperStat Online: An Introductory Statistics Textbook and Online Tutorial for Help in Statistics Courses Recommend HyperStat to your friends on Facebook Click here for more cartoons by Ben Shabad. Other Sources Stat Primer by Bud Gerstman of San Jose State University Statistical forecasting notes by Robert Nau of Duke University related: RegressIt Excel add-in by Robert Nau CADDIS Volume 4: Data Analysis (EPA) The little handbook of statistical practice by Gerard E. Stat Trek Tutorial Statistics at square 1 by T. Concepts and applications of inferential statistics by Richard Lowry of Vassar College CAST by W. SticiGui by P. SurfStat by Keith Dear of the University of Newcastle. Introductory statistics: Concepts, models, and applications by David W. Multivariate statistics: Concepts, models, and applications by David W. Electronic textbook by StatSoft A new view of statistics by Will Hopkins of the University of Otago The knowledge base: An online research methods textbook by William M.

LinkedIn Launches New Analytics For Company Pages | B2C Marketing Insider LinkedIn has always been the job seekers platform. Looking for a job, look no further than LinkedIn. While they have added features to enhance their “stay power” with Twitter updates, the LinkedIn sharing tool, the ability to upgrade to place your resume high atop of a pile, to our updates and groups, their focus has always been to be a professional site where users can come and be professional and build a platform that was conducive to connecting with people to gain employment or build a business. LinkedIn’s New Analytics for Company Pages LinkedIn has launched three new analytics for companies. 1. 2. 3.

PCR 1) Add the following to a microfuge tube: 10 ul reaction buffer 1 ul 15 uM forward primer 1 ul 15 uM reverse primer 1 ul template DNA 5 ul 2 mM dNTP 8 ul 25 mM MgCl2 or MgSO4 (volume variable) water (to make up to 100 ul) 2) Place tube in a thermocycler. 3) Start the PCR cycles according the following schemes: a) denaturation - 94 ° C, 30-90 sec. b) annealing - 55 °C (or -5° Tm), 0.5-2 min. c) extension - 72 °C, 1 min. repeat cycles 29 times 4) Add a final extension step of 5 min. to fill in any uncompleted polymerisation. Note: Most of the parameters can be varied to optimise the PCR (more at Tavi's PCR guide ): a) Mg ++ - one of the main variables - change the amount added if the PCR result is poor. b) Template DNA concentration - PCR is very powerful tool for DNA amplification therefore very little DNA is needed. c) Enzymes used - Taq DNA polymerase has a higher error rate (no proof-reading 3' to 5' exonuclease activity) than Tli or Pfu . h) Additives - i) PCR buffer 16.6 mM ammonium sulfate