Leo Tolstoy Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (/ˈtoʊlstɔɪ, ˈtɒl-/; Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, pronounced [lʲɛf nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ tɐlˈstoj]; 9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November [O.S. 7 November] 1910), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian novelist today regarded as one of the greatest of all time. In the 1870s Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening. His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist. Tolstoy's ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You, were to have a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and James Bevel. Life and career Death Tolstoy's grave with flowers at Yasnaya Polyana. Tolstoy died in 1910, at the age of 82. Personal life In films See also
A Taste of Marmelodov: Crime and Punishment Essay | A Taste of Marmelodov: Crime and Punishment Summary: In Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel, Crime and Punishment, Marmeladov is a minor character whose story is told in only a few short chapters of the first two books, and yet, Marmeladov plays an important role in the novel. A Taste of Marmeladov In Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel, Crime and Punishment, Marmeladov is a minor character whose story is told in only a few short chapters of the first two books, and yet, Marmeladov plays an important role in the novel. Raskolnikov first meets Marmeladov at a dirty tavern.
Vladimir Nabokov Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr nɐˈbokəf] ( ), also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1899c – 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist. Nabokov's first nine novels were in Russian. He then rose to international prominence as a writer of English prose. He also made serious contributions as a lepidopterist and chess composer. Nabokov's Lolita (1955) is his most famous novel, and often considered his finest work in English. It exhibits the love of intricate word play and synesthetic detail that characterised all his works. Life and career Russia Nabokov was born on 22 April 1899 (10 April 1899 Old Style), in Saint Petersburg,b to a wealthy and prominent family of minor nobility. The Rozhdestveno mansion, inherited from his uncle in 1916: Nabokov possessed it for less than a year before the October Revolution Emigration Berlin years (1922–37) United States Work
Vasily Chapayev Сhapayev's birthplace (today the house-museum "Chapayevs' Log House") Vasily Ivanovich Chapayev or Chapaev (Russian: Василий Иванович Чапаев; February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1887 – September 5, 1919) was a celebrated Russian soldier and Red Army commander during the Russian Civil War. Biography Chapayev was born into a poor peasant family in a village called Budayka, now part of Cheboksary. During World War I, he fought as a non-commissioned officer and was awarded the Cross of St. On September 5, 1919, the divisional headquarters near Lbishchensk (now renamed Chapayev in his honour) were ambushed by White Army forces. Private life In 1908 Chapayev became acquainted with Pelageya Metelina, who was 18. Chapaev in Russian culture See also References External links
Grigori Rasputin Brian Moynahan describes him as "a complex figure, intelligent, ambitious, idle, generous to a fault, spiritual, and - utterly- amoral." He was obsessed by religion and impressed many people with his knowledge and ability to explain the Bible in an uncomplicated way. Rasputin was neither a monk nor a saint; he never belonged to any order or religious sect. He was considered a strannik ("pilgrim"), wandering from cloister to cloister, and regarded as a starets ("guru") and a Yurodiviy (holy fool)[note 1] by his followers, who also believed him to be a psychic and faith healer. Rasputin himself did not consider himself to be a starets. Rasputin spoke an almost incomprehensible Siberian dialect and never preached or spoke in public. In 1907, Rasputin was invited by Nicholas and Alexandra Feodorovna to heal their only son, tsarevich Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia. Early life View of the Verkhoturye monastery (1910) Healer to Alexei Controversy
Alexander II of Russia Alexander II of Russia (Russian: Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич, Aleksandr II Nikolaevich) (29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1818 in Moscow – 13 March [O.S. 1 March] 1881 in Saint Petersburg) was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland. Alexander was the most successful Russian reformer since Peter the Great. His most important achievement was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, for which he became known as Alexander the Liberator (Russian: Алекса́ндр Освободитель, Aleksandr Osvoboditel'). The tsar was responsible for numerous other reforms including reorganizing the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing capital punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some of the privileges of the nobility, and promoting the universities. His brutal secret police sent thousands of dissidents into exile in Siberia. Reign
Roman von Ungern-Sternberg Ungern-Sternberg's attraction to esoteric Buddhism and his eccentric, often violent treatment of enemies as well as his own troops earned him the sobriquet "the Mad Baron" during the Russian Civil War. He was also an arch conservative pan-monarchist who aspired to restore the Russian monarchy under Michael Alexandrovich Romanov and revive the Great Mongol Empire under the rule of the Bogd Khan. During his short five month occupation of Outer Mongolia, Ungern-Sternberg imposed order on the capital Ikh Khüree through fear, intimidation, and brutal violence against opponents, particularly Bolshevik supporters. His subsequent invasion of Southern Siberia in support of anti-Bolshevik rebellions and to head off a Red Army-Mongolian partisan invasion in June 1921 ultimately led to his defeat and capture two months later. Biography Roman Nikolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg as a child First World War Bolshevik Revolution, 1917 Restoring the independence of Outer Mongolia
Monadology Text The first manuscript page of the Monadology  Context The monad, the word and the idea, belongs to the western philosophical tradition and has been used by various authors. Leibniz, who was exceptionally well read, could not have ignored this, but he did not use it himself until mid-1696 when he was sending for print his New System. Apparently he found with it a convenient way to expose his own philosophy as it was elaborated in this period. Summary The rhetorical strategy adopted by Leibniz in The Monadology is fairly obvious as the text begins with a description of monads (proceeding from simple to complicated instances),then it turns to their principle or creator andfinishes by using both to explain the world. (I) As far as Leibniz allows just one type of element in the build of the universe his system is monistic. (II) God is also said to be a simple substance (§47) but it is the only one which is necessary (§§38-9) and without a body attached (§72). 1.