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Mithraic mysteries

Mithraic mysteries
Double-faced Mithraic relief. Rome, 2nd to 3rd century AD (Louvre Museum) The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD. The Romans themselves regarded the mysteries as having Persian or Zoroastrian sources. Rock-born Mithras and Mithraic artifacts. The name Mithras[edit] The name Mithras (Latin, equivalent to Greek "Μίθρας",[13]) is a form of Mithra, the name of an Old Persian god.[14][15] (This point has been understood by Mithras scholars since the days of Franz Cumont.[16]) An early example of the Greek form of the name is in a 4th-century BC work by Xenophon, the Cyropaedia, which is a biography of the Persian king Cyrus the Great.[17] Related deity-names in other languages include Iranian "Mithra" and Sanskrit "Mitra" are believed to come from an Indo-Iranian word mitra meaning "contract, agreement, covenant".[24] Modern historians have different conceptions about whether these names refer to the same god or not.

Sol Invictus Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, "to the Unconquered Sun": the Emperor (at left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god on the obverse The idea, particularly popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, that the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun", is challenged today. Invictus as epithet[edit] Sol Invictus played a prominent role in the Mithraic mysteries, and was equated with Mithras himself.[15] The relation of the Mithraic Sol Invictus to the public cult of the deity with the same name is unclear and perhaps non-existent.[16] Elagabalus[edit] Aurelian[edit] The Roman gens Aurelian was associated with the cult of Sol.[20] After his victories in the East, the Emperor Aurelian thoroughly reformed the Roman cult of Sol, elevating the sun-god to one of the premier divinities of the Empire.

Soldiers, Spies and the Moon: Secret U.S. and Soviet Plans from the 1950s and 1960s Earth rising behind the moon. (Photo courtesy of NASA, Lewis Research Center) Washington, DC, July 20, 2014 – Forty-five years ago, astronaut Neil Armstrong took his "one small step" for mankind, becoming the first person to set foot on the moon. The program that resulted in that historic event — managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) — had been a very public one ever since its announcement by President John F. But there were also highly secret elements to the U.S. and Soviet schemes, which are the subject of today's National Security Archive posting of previously classified records. The posting includes: Army and Air Force studies from 1959 - 1961 on the creation of a military lunar base, with possible uses as a surveillance platform (for targets on earth and space) and the Lunar Based Earth Bombardment System (Document 1a, Document 1b, Document 3, Document 4). Soldiers, Spies, and the Moon By Jeffrey T. Lunar Bases and Detonations Moonbounce Overview

Eleusinian Mysteries Votive plaque depicting elements of the Eleusinian Mysteries, discovered in the sanctuary at Eleusis (mid-4th century BC) The rites, ceremonies, and beliefs were kept secret and consistently preserved from a hoary antiquity. The initiated believed that they would have a reward in the afterlife.[5] There are many paintings and pieces of pottery that depict various aspects of the Mysteries. Mythology of Demeter and Persephone[edit] The Mysteries are related to a myth concerning Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fertility as recounted in one of the Homeric Hymns (c. 650 BC). According to the myth, during her search Demeter traveled long distances and had many minor adventures along the way. Zeus, pressed by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who also heard their anguish, forced Hades to return Persephone. Her rebirth is symbolic of the rebirth of all plant life and the symbol of eternity of life that flows from the generations that spring from each other.[12]

Higher consciousness Higher consciousness is the consciousness of a higher Self, transcendental reality, or God. It is "the part of the human being that is capable of transcending animal instincts". The concept developed in German Idealism, and is a central notion in contemporary popular spirituality. Philosophy[edit] Fichte[edit] Fichte distinguished the finite or empirical ego from the pure or infinite ego. Fichte (1762-1814) was one of the founding figures of German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. According to Michael Whiteman, Fichte's philosophical system "is a remarkable western formulation of eastern mystical teachings (of which he seems to have had no direct knowledge)." Schopenhauer[edit] In 1812 Schopenhauer started to use the term "the better consciousness", a consciousness ... According to Schopenhauer, The better consciousness in me lifts me into a world where there is no longer personality and causality or subject or object. Religion[edit]

Iran-Contra Revisited "At last, the Reagan administration's Iran-Contra affair finally has a comprehensive history worthy of the scandal ... Malcolm Byrne has told the complex story in brilliant fashion. Advance praise for Iran-Contra: Reagan's Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power by Malcolm Byrne: "A remarkable book about a remarkable scandal that shook American politics more than a quarter century ago." Bruce Riedel , author of What We Won: America's Secret War in Afghanistan "A thrilling account of secrecy, connivance and manipulation ... Maziar Bahari , author of Then They Came for Me "Outstanding and meticulously researched." Cynthia J. "The definitive volume on the Iran-Contra scandal and its impact." Farideh Farhi , University of Hawaii, Manoa "This book reopens the vitally important argument over Ronald Reagan's presidency." Walter Lafeber , Professor Emeritus, Cornell University Gary Sick , Columbia University "A compelling and revelatory account." After three separate U.S.

Dionysian Mysteries The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques (like dance and music) to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return to a natural state. It also provided some liberation for those marginalized by Greek society: women, slaves and foreigners. In their final phase the Mysteries shifted their emphasis from a chthonic, underworld orientation to a transcendental, mystical one, with Dionysus changing his nature accordingly (similar to the change in the cult of Shiva). By its nature as a mystery religion reserved for the initiated, many aspects of the Dionysian cult remain unknown and were lost with the decline of Greco-Roman polytheism; our knowledge is derived from descriptions, imagery and cross-cultural studies. Origins[edit] Early Dionysus cult[edit] Role of wine[edit] Rites[edit] Emergence and evolution[edit] Male initiation rituals[edit] Female initiation rituals[edit]

Two-factor models of personality Beginnings[edit] The Roman physician Galen mapped the four temperaments (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic) to a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet, taken from the four classical elements.[1] Two of these temperaments, sanguine and choleric, shared a common trait: quickness of response (corresponding to "heat"), while the melancholic and phlegmatic shared the opposite, a longer response (coldness). The melancholic and choleric, however, shared a sustained response (dryness), and the sanguine and phlegmatic shared a short-lived response (wetness). This meant that the choleric and melancholic both would tend to hang on to emotions like anger, and thus appear more serious and critical than the fun-loving sanguine, and the peaceful phlegmatic. However, the choleric would be characterized by quick expressions of anger (like the sanguine, with the difference being that the sanguine cools off); while the melancholic would build up anger slowly, silently, before exploding. David W.

The War at Home Most Americans of a certain age can recall exactly where they were and what they were doing on October 20, 1964, when word came that Herbert Hoover was dead. The heart and mind of a nation stopped. But how many recall when and how they first became aware that one or another of the Bill of Rights had expired? For me, it was sometime in 1960 at a party in Beverly Hills that I got the bad news from the constitutionally cheery actor Cary Grant. Curiously enough, it was Grant again who bore, as lightly as ever, the news that privacy itself hangs by a gossamer thread. Innocent days. Among the report’s findings, between 1990 and 1996, the number of workers under electronic surveillance increased from 8 million per year to more than 30 million. In the last year or so I have had two Cary Grant–like revelations, considerably grimmer than what went on in the good old days of relative freedom from the state. The state of the art of citizen-harassment is still in its infancy.

Bohemianism This use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the nineteenth century[1] to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, journalists, musicians, and actors in major European cities. Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which often were expressed through free love, frugality, and—in some cases—voluntary poverty. A wealthy and privileged, even aristocratic, bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as the haute bohème[2] ("high bohemians").[3] The term Bohemianism emerged in France in the early nineteenth century when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class, gypsy neighborhoods. Origins[edit] European bohemianism[edit] The term Bohemian has come to be very commonly accepted in our day as the description of a certain kind of literary gypsy, no matter in what language he speaks, or what city he inhabits .... People[edit] Europe Canada

Five Temperaments Five temperaments is a theory in psychology, that expands upon the Four Temperaments proposed in ancient medical theory. The development of a theory of five temperaments begins with the Two-factor models of personality and the work of the late William Schutz, and his FIRO-B program. It is a measure of interpersonal relations orientations that calculates a person's behavior patterns based on the scoring of a questionnaire. Although FIRO-B does not speak in terms of "temperament", this system of analysis graded questionnaires on two scales in three dimensions of interpersonal relations. When paired with temperament theory, a measurement of five temperaments resulted.[1] History and the ancient four temperaments[edit] This is also related to the classical elements of air, water, earth, and fire; as sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic, and choleric, respectively. Development of related "two factor" models and the regaining popularity of the ancient temperaments[edit] The FIRO-B connection[edit]

The Meaning of Timothy McVeigh Toward the end of the last century but one, Richard Wagner made a visit to the southern Italian town of Ravello, where he was shown the gardens of the thousand-year-old Villa Rufolo. “Maestro,” asked the head gardener, “do not these fantastic gardens ’neath yonder azure sky that blends in such perfect harmony with yonder azure sea closely resemble those fabled gardens of Klingsor where you have set so much of your latest interminable opera, Parsifal? Is not this vision of loveliness your inspiration for Klingsor?” Wagner muttered something in German. “He say,” said a nearby translator, “‘How about that?’” How about that indeed, I thought, as I made my way toward a corner of those fabled gardens, where ABC-TV’s Good Morning America and CBS’s Early Show had set up their cameras so that I could appear “live” to viewers back home in God’s country. This was last May. There was a standoff. It wasn’t until May 14, 1995, that Janet Reno, on 60 Minutes, confessed to second thoughts.

Free love Free love is a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social and financial bondage. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.[1] Many people believe marriage is an important aspect of life to "fulfil earthly human happiness." While the phrase free love is often associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. The term "sex radical" is also used interchangeably with the term "free lover", and was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love". The women's movement[edit] The history of free love is entwined with the history of feminism. In the 1850s, Hannah R.

Acupuncture Modern Views Acupuncture Facts Acupuncture Modern Views When the human body was finally described in terms of cells, biochemicals, and specific structures (most of this accomplished less than 150 years ago), the Chinese method of acupuncture and its underlying concepts were evaluated in these new terms. As a first effort, researchers sought out physical pathways that might correspond to the meridians, and even a fluid substance that might correspond to qi. Neither of these were found. From the modern perspective, diseases and injuries are resolved by a complex set of responses; the responses are coordinated by several signaling systems. Modern studies have revealed that acupuncture stimulates one or more of the signaling systems, which can, under certain circumstances, increase the rate of healing response. This modern explanation of how acupuncture works does not explain why the acupuncture points are arrayed along the traditional meridian lines. Please also visit the website of

Obama’s New Ukraine “While Russia has been making efforts to de-escalate and resolve the crisis, the Kiev regime has chosen to launch airstrikes on peaceful residential areas, literally destroying the last hope for preserving the Geneva accords.” Dmitry Peskov, Putin’s spokesman“The crisis in Ukraine is not the result of ‘Russian aggression,’ but of a criminal strategy by the US and its European allies to install a hostile regime on Russia’s borders in Ukraine and, ultimately, dismember Russia itself.” Johannes Stern, NATO boosts military build-up against Russia as protests spread in east Ukraine, World Socialist Web Site Fighting broke out on Friday in the eastern Ukrainian city of Slavyansk when Kiev’s coup government deployed military helicopters to fire on the city while troops and armored vehicles stormed checkpoints. At the time this article went to press, two helicopters had been shot down killing at least two pilots while one was captured. Here’s a clip from the New York Times:

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