The Medici, Michelangelo, and the Art of Late Renaissance Florence The Medici, Michelangelo, and the Art of Late Renaissance Florence provides a detailed survey of the art and culture of 16th-century Florence, the crucible of the Italian Renaissance. Between 1537 and 1631, the first four Medici grand dukes—Cosimo I; his sons, Francesco I and Ferdinando I; and his grandson, Cosimo II—presided over a spectacular flowering of the arts and sciences, exemplified by the pioneering achievements and dominant legacy of Michelangelo. Celebrated during his lifetime for his extraordinary talent as a sculptor, architect, painter, draftsman, and poet, Michelangelo inspired subsequent Florentine artists and attracted the city’s most powerful patrons—notably the Medici grand dukes. Their extensive and enlightened patronage allowed art in all media to flourish. Cosimo I de’ Medici back to top Michelangelo: The Sculptor and His Legacy in Florence The Tapestry Workshops Grand Duke Francesco I de’ Medici The Studiolo of Francesco I The Grand-Ducal Workshops under Francesco I
House of Sforza Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. They acquired the dukedom and Duchy of Milan from the previously ruling Visconti family in the mid-15th century, and lost it to the Spanish Habsburgs about a century later. History Rising from rural nobility, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force, ruse, and power politics, similar to the Medici in Florence. Muzio Attendolo (1369–1424), called Sforza (from sforzare, to exert or force), founded the dynasty. His son Francesco I Sforza ruled Milan, having acquired the title of Duke of Milan (1450-1466) after the extinction of the Visconti family in 1447. The family also held the seigniory of Pesaro, starting from Muzio Attendolo's second son, Alessandro (1409–1473). Sforza rulers of Duchy of Milan Sforza rulers of Pesaro and Gradara Sforza family tree Notable members In popular culture See also References
Amazing Steampunk Goggles for Evil Scientists 25 Oct 2010 October 25, 2010 Steampunk is quite popular nowadays, and if you’re a fan of steampunk fiction, we have something special for you today. If you ever thought how cool are those evil scientist goggles, you’ll be pleased to know that design team at Double A Stitching has created a pair of amazing steampunk goggles for evil scientists or pilots, so let’s check them out.As you might notice, these glasses are simply beautiful, and we’re positive that you’re going to like them, even if you’re not into steampunk fiction. They are hand sewn and the greatest thing about those goggles is the high amount of detail that they have. You can notice the layer that covers the goggles looks like it has been made from real leather and we can only say that that detail looks amazing. Via (Walyou)
Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Counter Reformation Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation. An era of strict conformity and accompanying terror had begun. During the reign of Pope Leo X, discontent amongst Catholics in Europe was at an all-time high. The challenge from Luther caught the Pope by surprise. In 1545, the leaders of the Catholic Church gathered in the Northern Italian city of Trent for an emergency conference. After 20-years of debate, the Council of Trent established the basis for a Catholic counter-attack. The “Index of Forbidden Books” was published, naming and shaming 583 heretical texts, including most translations of the Bible and the works of Erasmus, Calvin and Luther. A new agency of obedience was created.
Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Leonardo The most famous artist in the world, Leonardo was nurtured by Lorenzo de'Medici. Botticelli, Michelangelo and da Vinci equalled unparalleled genius, now known as the “High Renaissance”. Leonardo was more than just an artist. It is argued that no man has ever studied more subjects or generated more ideas, than Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo the artist Born in 1450, the son of a lawyer and his peasant lover, Leonardo, like thousands of talented boys, was drawn to Florence. Leonardo was experimenting with oils, a radical technique previously known only in the Northern Europe. By 1481, Leonardo had outgrown Florence. Leonardo returned to Florence in 1504, and was drawn into a competition with the upstart, Michelangelo. Italy soon descended into chaos, with warring armies carving their way from Milan to Rome. Leonardo the scientist To be the ultimate Renaisssance man, one had to master every discipline, from natural science, engineering and architecture through to philosophy and art.
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi]; July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy and the world. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland". Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of a unified Italy. He was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. He has been called the "Hero of Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. These earned him a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Early years Return to Italy
statues The Reformation Brings New Approach to Sacred Music The Reformation Brings New Approach to Sacred Music As the Protestant Reformation swept across Europe, those who rebelled against Catholicism cast their new forms of worship in opposition to the Catholic Mass—including its music. How sacred music developed as part of the Reformation was explored in a presentation on Sept. 22 by Jane Dawson, Ph.D., the John Laing Professor of Reformation History at Edinburgh University’s School of Divinity. By the late Middle Ages, Dawson said, the performance of sacred music was relegated mainly to professionals who could understand its elaborate polyphonic structure. "They also stipulated that words should be audible and that the language must be comprehensible," Dawson said. This "triumph of the word," as the Protestant Reformation has been traditionally regarded, marked a decisive shift from a visual and sensual culture to a logocentric and literary one. For the first time, Scots were singing together in church.
David (Donatello) The first version of David (1408–1409). Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Height 191 cm. David is the name of two statues by Italian early Renaissance sculptor Donatello. The story of David and Goliath comes from 1 Samuel 17. Donatello was commissioned to carve a statue of David in 1408. The marble David is Donatello's earliest known important commission, and it is a work closely tied to tradition, giving few signs of the innovative approach to representation that the artist would develop as he matured. Donatello, David (1440s?) Donatello's bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is famous as the first unsupported standing work of bronze cast during the Renaissance, and the first freestanding nude male sculpture made since antiquity. This piece was requested by the Medici family to be placed in the center of the courtyard of the Medici Palace in Florence. Left side of Donatello's David Back view of the legs of the David in the Bargello Museum, Florence
House of Borgia The Borgia (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbɔrdʒa], Spanish: Borja [ˈborxa], Valencian: Borja [ˈbɔɾdʒa]) family became prominent during the Renaissance in Italy. They were from Valencia, the name being a toponymic from Borja, then in the kingdom of Aragon, in Spain. The Borgias became prominent in ecclesiastical and political affairs in the 15th and 16th centuries, producing two popes, Alfons de Borja who ruled as Pope Callixtus III during 1455–1458 and Rodrigo Lanzol Borgia, as Pope Alexander VI, during 1492–1503. Especially during the reign of Alexander VI, they were suspected of many crimes, including adultery, incest, simony, theft, bribery, and murder (especially murder by arsenic poisoning). Because of their grasping for power, they made enemies of the Medici, the Sforza, and the Dominican friar Savonarola, among others. They were also patrons of the arts who contributed to the Renaissance. History Early history Alfons Rodrigo Cesare
Index of art historical sites. Digital Imaging Project: Art historical sites THIS SITE IS ALWAYS UNDER CONSTRUCTION--coming soon: more images from Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Valencia, and Zaragoza), from Sicily, from Scotland, and from Guatemala. See earlier featured sites here. Click here to go to the index of artists and architects. Click here to go to the chronological index. NOTE: I still have thousands of slides to scan so I will be adding pages regularly. Web Creator's comments: philosophy, technical issues, use of images, etc. In Memoriam: Maggie, our English Springer Spaniel Austria / Belgium / Cambodia / Canada / Egypt / France / Germany / Great Britain / Greece / Guatemala / India / Ireland / Italy / Mexico / The Netherlands / Pakistan / Poland / Portugal / Spain / United States / Vietnam / See also Women Architects (with more than 60 buildings by Julia Morgan) See also Index to Sculpture and Architecture by African American Artists or Relevant to African American History and Culture Austria Vienna Apartment Block No. 38 (Wagner) St. Belgium Edfu
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. Initially, religion was a motivation for war as Protestant and Catholic states battled it out even though they all were inside the Holy Roman Empire. Changing the relative balance of power within the Empire was at issue. Gradually, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe. In this general phase, the war became less specifically religious and more a continuation of the Bourbon–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence, leading in turn to further warfare between France and the Habsburg powers. A major consequence of the Thirty Years' War was the devastation of entire regions, denuded by the foraging armies (bellum se ipsum alet). Origins of the War
David (Michelangelo) David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504, by the Italian artist Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo. It is a 5.17-metre (17.0 ft) marble statue of a standing male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a favoured subject in the art of Florence. Originally commissioned as one of a series of statues of prophets to be positioned along the roofline of the east end of Florence Cathedral, the statue was placed instead in a public square, outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence, where it was unveiled on 8 September 1504. Because of the nature of the hero that it represented, it soon came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. David in the Accademia The eyes of David look towards Rome