House of Sforza Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. They acquired the dukedom and Duchy of Milan from the previously ruling Visconti family in the mid-15th century, and lost it to the Spanish Habsburgs about a century later. History Rising from rural nobility, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force, ruse, and power politics, similar to the Medici in Florence. Muzio Attendolo (1369–1424), called Sforza (from sforzare, to exert or force), founded the dynasty. His son Francesco I Sforza ruled Milan, having acquired the title of Duke of Milan (1450-1466) after the extinction of the Visconti family in 1447. The family also held the seigniory of Pesaro, starting from Muzio Attendolo's second son, Alessandro (1409–1473). Sforza rulers of Duchy of Milan Sforza rulers of Pesaro and Gradara Sforza family tree Notable members In popular culture See also References
Amazing Steampunk Goggles for Evil Scientists 25 Oct 2010 October 25, 2010 Steampunk is quite popular nowadays, and if you’re a fan of steampunk fiction, we have something special for you today. If you ever thought how cool are those evil scientist goggles, you’ll be pleased to know that design team at Double A Stitching has created a pair of amazing steampunk goggles for evil scientists or pilots, so let’s check them out.As you might notice, these glasses are simply beautiful, and we’re positive that you’re going to like them, even if you’re not into steampunk fiction. They are hand sewn and the greatest thing about those goggles is the high amount of detail that they have. You can notice the layer that covers the goggles looks like it has been made from real leather and we can only say that that detail looks amazing. Via (Walyou)
Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Counter Reformation Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation. An era of strict conformity and accompanying terror had begun. During the reign of Pope Leo X, discontent amongst Catholics in Europe was at an all-time high. The challenge from Luther caught the Pope by surprise. In 1545, the leaders of the Catholic Church gathered in the Northern Italian city of Trent for an emergency conference. After 20-years of debate, the Council of Trent established the basis for a Catholic counter-attack. The “Index of Forbidden Books” was published, naming and shaming 583 heretical texts, including most translations of the Bible and the works of Erasmus, Calvin and Luther. A new agency of obedience was created.
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi]; July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy and the world. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland". Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of a unified Italy. He was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. He has been called the "Hero of Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. These earned him a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Early years Return to Italy
statues The Reformation Brings New Approach to Sacred Music The Reformation Brings New Approach to Sacred Music As the Protestant Reformation swept across Europe, those who rebelled against Catholicism cast their new forms of worship in opposition to the Catholic Mass—including its music. How sacred music developed as part of the Reformation was explored in a presentation on Sept. 22 by Jane Dawson, Ph.D., the John Laing Professor of Reformation History at Edinburgh University’s School of Divinity. By the late Middle Ages, Dawson said, the performance of sacred music was relegated mainly to professionals who could understand its elaborate polyphonic structure. "They also stipulated that words should be audible and that the language must be comprehensible," Dawson said. This "triumph of the word," as the Protestant Reformation has been traditionally regarded, marked a decisive shift from a visual and sensual culture to a logocentric and literary one. For the first time, Scots were singing together in church.
House of Borgia The Borgia (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbɔrdʒa], Spanish: Borja [ˈborxa], Valencian: Borja [ˈbɔɾdʒa]) family became prominent during the Renaissance in Italy. They were from Valencia, the name being a toponymic from Borja, then in the kingdom of Aragon, in Spain. The Borgias became prominent in ecclesiastical and political affairs in the 15th and 16th centuries, producing two popes, Alfons de Borja who ruled as Pope Callixtus III during 1455–1458 and Rodrigo Lanzol Borgia, as Pope Alexander VI, during 1492–1503. Especially during the reign of Alexander VI, they were suspected of many crimes, including adultery, incest, simony, theft, bribery, and murder (especially murder by arsenic poisoning). Because of their grasping for power, they made enemies of the Medici, the Sforza, and the Dominican friar Savonarola, among others. They were also patrons of the arts who contributed to the Renaissance. History Early history Alfons Rodrigo Cesare
Index of art historical sites. Digital Imaging Project: Art historical sites THIS SITE IS ALWAYS UNDER CONSTRUCTION--coming soon: more images from Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Valencia, and Zaragoza), from Sicily, from Scotland, and from Guatemala. See earlier featured sites here. Click here to go to the index of artists and architects. Click here to go to the chronological index. NOTE: I still have thousands of slides to scan so I will be adding pages regularly. Web Creator's comments: philosophy, technical issues, use of images, etc. In Memoriam: Maggie, our English Springer Spaniel Austria / Belgium / Cambodia / Canada / Egypt / France / Germany / Great Britain / Greece / Guatemala / India / Ireland / Italy / Mexico / The Netherlands / Pakistan / Poland / Portugal / Spain / United States / Vietnam / See also Women Architects (with more than 60 buildings by Julia Morgan) See also Index to Sculpture and Architecture by African American Artists or Relevant to African American History and Culture Austria Vienna Apartment Block No. 38 (Wagner) St. Belgium Edfu
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. Initially, religion was a motivation for war as Protestant and Catholic states battled it out even though they all were inside the Holy Roman Empire. Changing the relative balance of power within the Empire was at issue. Gradually, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe. In this general phase, the war became less specifically religious and more a continuation of the Bourbon–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence, leading in turn to further warfare between France and the Habsburg powers. A major consequence of the Thirty Years' War was the devastation of entire regions, denuded by the foraging armies (bellum se ipsum alet). Origins of the War
Orestes In Greek mythology, Orestes (/ɒˈrɛstiːz/; Greek: Ὀρέστης [oˈrestɛːs]) was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. He is the subject of several Ancient Greek plays and of various myths connected with his madness and purification, which retain obscure threads of much older ones. Orestes has a root in ὄρος (óros), "mountain". Greek literature Homer In the Homeric story, Orestes was a member of the doomed house of Atreus which is descended from Tantalus and Niobe. In the Odyssey, Orestes is held up as a favorable example to Telemachus, whose mother Penelope is plagued by suitors. Orestes, Elektra, and Pylades at the tomb of Agamemnon - Campanian red-figurehydria, c. 330 BC Pindar According to Pindar, the young Orestes was saved by his nurse Arsinoe (Laodamia) or his sister Electra, who conveyed him out of the country when Clytemnestra wished to kill him. Sophocles and Euripides The same myth is told differently by Sophocles and Euripides in their Electra plays.
unurth | street art Counter-Reformation A copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurationReligious ordersSpiritual movementsPolitical dimensions Council of Trent A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Religious orders Politics: The Netherlands
Clytemnestra Clytemnestra or Clytaemnestra (pronounced /ˌklaɪtəmˈniːstrə/; Greek: Κλυταιμνήστρα, [klytai̯mnɛ̌ːstra]), in ancient Greek legend, was the wife of Agamemnon, ruler of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Mycenae or Argos. In the Oresteia by Aeschylus, she was a femme fatale, who murdered her husband, Agamemnon – said by Euripides to be her second husband – and the Trojan princess Cassandra, whom he had taken as war prize following the sack of Troy; however, in Homer's Odyssey, her role in Agamemnon's death is unclear and her character is significantly more subdued. The name form Κλυταιμνήστρα (Klytaimnēstra) is commonly glossed as "famed for her suitors". However, this form is a later misreading motivated by an erroneous etymological connection to the verb μνάoμαι 'woo, court'. Background After the murder (1882) artist John Collier (1850–1934) Guildhall Art Gallery (London) Mythology The Trojan War lasted ten years. Appearance in later works References Servius.