Underworld Yggdrasil, a modern attempt to reconstruct the Norse world tree which connects the heavens, the world, and the underworld. The legs of the god Vishnu as the Cosmic Man depict earth and the seven realms of the Hindu underworld of Patala. The feet rest on cosmic serpent Shesha. Underworlds by mythology This list includes underworlds in various mythology, with links to corresponding articles. Solar deity Statue of Hathor – Luxor Museum The winged sun was an ancient (3rd millennium BC) symbol of Horus, later identified with Ra A solar deity (also sun god/dess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
Sky father "Sky Father" is a direct translation of the Vedic Dyaus Pita, etymologically identical to the Greek Zeus Pater. While there are numerous parallels adduced from outside of Indo-European mythology, the concept is far from universal (e.g. Egyptian mythology has a "Heavenly Mother"). "Sky Father" in historical mythology "Nomadic" hypothesis In late 19th century opinions on comparative religion, in a line of thinking that begins with Friedrich Engels and J.
Psychopomp In Jungian psychology, the psychopomp is a mediator between the unconscious and conscious realms. It is symbolically personified in dreams as a wise man or woman, or sometimes as a helpful animal. In many cultures, the shaman also fulfills the role of the psychopomp. List of lunar deities The Hindu Chandra, riding his celestial chariot. Moon in mythology Also of significance is that many religions and societies are oriented chronologically by the Moon as opposed to the sun.
Dying-and-rising god The methods of death can be diverse, the Norse Baldr mistakenly dies by the arrow of his blind brother, the Aztec Quetzalcoatl sets himself on fire after over-drinking, and the Japanese Izanami dies of a fever. Some gods who die are also seen as either returning or bringing about life in some other form, in many cases associated with a vegetation deity related to a staple. The very existence of the category "dying-and-rising-god" was debated throughout the 20th century, and the soundness of the category was widely questioned, given that many of the proposed gods did not return in a permanent sense as the same deity. By the end of the 20th century, scholarly consensus had formed against the reasoning used to suggest the category, and it was generally considered inappropriate from a historical perspective. Overview Odin whispering to a dead Baldr as he is to be sent out to sea
San Nicolás, Nicolás el ermitaño y el rey Orfeo Multiforms of the Two Trees’ pattern incorporating the motifs of bees and honey were common also in modern Russian fable. One particular nominal motif of person was usual in such Russian tales—the popular Saint Nicholas. Sometimes he is the honey-trickster, and sometimes an alter-ego of other tricksters. For example, a tiny text recorded in the district of Perm in the 19th century contains the whole pattern.151 An inveterate burglar is one day observed in the act of stealing and flees from that city, whence a posse pursues him into a nearby forest. He traverses the forest, but is still being chased when he reaches its farthest limit.
Mother goddess Mother goddess is a term used to refer to a goddess who represents and/or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth. When equated with the Earth or the natural world, such goddesses are sometimes referred to as Mother Earth or as the Earth Mother. Many different goddesses have represented motherhood in one way or another, and some have been associated with the birth of humanity as a whole, along with the universe and everything in it. Others have represented the fertility of the earth. Paleolithic figures
List of death deities Deities associated with death take many different forms, depending on the specific culture and religion being referenced. Psychopomps, deities of the underworld, and resurrection deities are commonly called death deities in comparative religions texts. The term colloquially refers to deities that either collect or rule over the dead, rather than those deities who determine the time of death. However, all these types will be included in this article. Many have incorporated a god of death into their mythology or religion. As death, along with birth, is among the major parts of human life, these deities may often be one of the most important deities of a religion.
Origin-of-death myth The origin of death is a theme in the myths of many cultures. Death is a universal feature of human life, so stories about its origin appear to be universal in human cultures. As such it is a form of cosmological myth (a type of myth that explains the origins of a culture and the problems that faces it). No one type of these myths is universal, but each region has its own characteristic types. Such myths have therefore been a frequent topic of study in the field of comparative mythology. Africa Pervasively in the myths of African cultures, in the beginning there was no death. This can be because a supreme being makes people young again when they grow old; people die but are reborn; or go to heaven to live. In some stories eternal life is lost through some flaw (such as greed, curiosity, stubbornness or arrogance), or as a punishment for disobedience, or as the result of human indifference.
National myth In some places, the national myth may be spiritual in tone and refer to stories of the nation's founding at the hands of God, the gods, leaders favored by gods, and other supernatural beings. National myths serve many social and political purposes. National myths often exist only for the purpose of state-sponsored propaganda.
List of women warriors in folklore The Hindu goddess Kali slays the demon Raktabija in an etching by Richard B. Godfrey (1770). The Swedish heroine Blenda advises the women of Värend to fight off the Danish army in a painting by August Malström (1860). Mytheme In the study of mythology, a mytheme is the essential kernel of a myth—an irreducible, unchanging element, a minimal unit that is always found shared with other, related mythemes and reassembled in various ways ("bundled" was Claude Lévi-Strauss's image) or linked in more complicated relationships. For example, the myths of Adonis and Osiris share several elements, leading some scholars to conclude that they share a source, i.e. images passed down in cultures or from one to another, being ascribed new interpretations of the action depicted as well as new names in various readings of icons. Claude Lévi-Strauss, who gave the term wide circulation, wrote, "If one wants to establish a parallel between structural linguistics and the structural analysis of myths, the correspondence is established, not between mytheme and word but between mytheme and phoneme". The structuralist analyzer of folk tales, Vladimir Propp, considered that the unit of analysis was the individual tale.
LGBT themes in mythology The presence of LGBT themes in Western mythologies has long been recognised, and the subject of intense study. The application of gender studies and queer theory to non-Western mythic tradition is less developed, but has been growing since the end of the twentieth century. Myths often include homosexuality, bisexuality or transgenderism as a symbol for sacred or mythic experiences. Devdutt Pattanaik writes that myths "capture the collective unconsciousness of a people", and that this means they reflect deep-rooted beliefs about variant sexualities that may be at odds with repressive social mores. Critical perspective ...Queer manifestations of sexuality, though repressed socially, squeeze their way into the myths, legends and lore of the land.