Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов; IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɪˈlʲitɕ ʊˈlʲanəf]), alias Lenin (/ˈlɛnɪn/; Russian: Ле́нин; IPA: [ˈlʲenʲɪn]) (22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1870 – 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death. Under his administration, the Russian Empire was replaced by the Soviet Union; all wealth including land, industry and business was confiscated. Based in Marxism, his political theories are known as Leninism. Lenin, along with Leon Trotsky, played a senior role in orchestrating the October Revolution in 1917, which led to the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Early life Childhood: 1870–87 University and political radicalism: 1887–93 Revolutionary activities The 1905 Revolution: 1905–07
Related: Khmer Rouge ideology and its relationship to violence
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paintingfeather: Wassily Kandinsky paintingsThe Russian painter and graphic artist Wassily Kandinsky was one of the great masters of modern art, as well as the outstanding representative of pure abstract painting (using only colors and forms) that dominated the first half of the twentieth century. Early years in Russia Wassily Kandinsky was born on December 4, 1866, in Moscow, Russia. His father was a tea merchant. Between 1886 and 1892 Kandinsky studied law and economics at the University of Moscow. Born: December 4, 1866 Moscow, Russia Died: December 13, 1944 Neuilly-sur-Seine, France Russian painter and graphic artist Beginnings as an artist It was not until 1896, when Kandinsky was thirty years old, that he decided to become an artist. The year 1910 was crucial for Kandinsky and for the art world. Return to Russia When World War I (1914–18; a war in which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Japan fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States) broke out, Kandinsky returned to Russia.
Russian Social Democratic Labour PartyThis article deals with the political organisation established in 1883 and its history until the final split in 1912. The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Росси́йская социа́л-демократи́ческая рабо́чая па́ртия, РСДРП, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya, RSDRP), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. The RSDLP later split into Majority and Minority factions, with the Majority (in Russian: "Bolshevik") faction eventually becoming the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In Russia proper The RSDLP was not the first Russian Marxist group; the Emancipation of Labour group was formed in 1883. Before the Second Congress, a young intellectual named Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov joined the party, better known by his pseudonym — Vladimir Lenin.
Karl MarxKarl Marx[note 1] (/mɑrks/; German pronunciation: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks]; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867–1894). Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies he wrote for Rheinische Zeitung, a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out the theory of the materialist conception of history. Early life Childhood and early education: 1818–1835 Karl Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Heinrich Marx and Henrietta Pressburg (1788-1863).
Chelsea ManningAssigned in 2009 to an Army unit in Iraq as an intelligence analyst, Manning had access to classified databases. In early 2010, she leaked classified information to WikiLeaks and confided this to Adrian Lamo, an online acquaintance. Lamo informed Army Counterintelligence, and Manning was arrested in May that same year. The material included videos of the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike, and the 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan; 250,000 U.S. diplomatic cables; and 500,000 Army reports that came to be known as the Iraq War logs and Afghan War logs. Much of the material was published by WikiLeaks or its media partners between April and November 2010. Reaction to Manning's disclosures, arrest, and sentence was mixed. Background Early life Born Bradley Edward Manning in 1987 in Crescent, Oklahoma, she was the second child of Susan Fox, originally from Wales, and Brian Manning, an American. Parents' divorce, move to Wales Manning's father remarried in 2000, the same year as his divorce.
Vladimir LeninThe year of his brother’s execution, Lenin enrolled at Kazan University to study law. His time there was cut short, however, when, during his first term, he was expelled for taking part in a student demonstration. Exiled to his grandfather’s estate in the village of Kokushkino, Lenin took up residence with his sister Anna, whom police had ordered to live there as a result of her own suspicious activities. There, Lenin immersed himself in a host of radical literature, including the novel What Is To Be Done? Eventually, Lenin received his law degree, finishing his schoolwork in 1892. In time, Lenin focused more of his energy on revolutionary politics. The work did not go unnoticed, and in December 1895 Lenin and several other Marxist leaders were arrested. Following his release from exile and then a stint in Munich, where Lenin and others co-founded a newspaper, Iskra, to unify Russian and European Marxists, he returned to St.
Eisenstein's October by Murray SperberEisenstein’s October by Murray Sperber from Jump Cut, no. 14, 1977, pp. 15-22 copyright Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 1977, 2004 Sergei Eisenstein, in the first decade of the Soviet Union and his own first decade in the cinema, was deeply committed to Marxism. Politicos often attack or apologize for him in “vulgar Marxist” or “vulgar Free World” terms: e.g., the Stalinist and American Legion charges against him during his lifetime (OCTOBER was considered particularly “deviationist” and “subversive”), and the Soviet Union’s veneration of him in safe death. This aesthete position gained momentum in the West during the Cold War when the safest way to discuss film—or any art—was in formalist terms. The study of actual history is difficult and the more distant and foreign the period—e.g., the Soviet 1920s—the greater the problems. Part of the problem for Western critics and viewers is that the subject of Eisenstein’s OCTOBER—the 1917 Russian Revolution—is unfamiliar. “Mr.
Georgi PlekhanovPlekhanov is the name of: Plekhanov may also refer to: Plekhanov Russian Economic University, public university in MoscowPlekhanov House, collection of the Russian National Library in St Petersburg14479 Plekhanov, main belt asteroidFrench Communist PartyThe French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français, PCF ; French pronunciation: [paʁti kɔmynist fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a communist party in France. Founded in 1920 by the majority faction of the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), it participated in three governments: in the provisional government of the Liberation (1944–1947),at the beginning of François Mitterrand's presidency (1981–1984) andin Plural Left cabinet led by Lionel Jospin (1997–2002). The PCF is a member of the Party of the European Left, and its MEPs sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group. History Ideology PCF rallying for a 6the republic, 2012 in Paris In the 1980s, under Georges Marchais, the PCF mixed a partial acceptance of "bourgeois" democracy and individual liberties with more traditional Marxist-Leninist rhetoric. Since then, the PCF's ideology has been marked by significant ideological evolution on some topics but consistency on other issues. Leadership