Ancient Egypt Military Egypt’s defensive advantages were not enough to stop the conquering Hyskos, who invaded at the end of the Middle Kingdom. The Egyptians learned from their defeat and reinvented their army, ushering in a new age of military glory. The Egyptian lands of the Archaic Period, Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom were not devoid of armies or enemies, however. Nomads raided from the desert; Libyans attacked the Nile delta; and the Nubians threatened the southern border. Ancient Egyptian scripts (hieroglyphs, hieratic and demotic) Origins of Egyptian Hieroglyphs The ancient Egyptians believed that writing was invented by the god Thoth and called their hieroglyphic script "mdju netjer" ("words of the gods"). The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek hieros (sacred) plus glypho (inscriptions) and was first used by Clement of Alexandria. The earliest known examples of writing in Egypt have been dated to 3,400 BC. The latest dated inscription in hieroglyphs was made on the gate post of a temple at Philae in 396 AD. The hieroglyphic script was used mainly for formal inscriptions on the walls of temples and tombs.
Cartographies of Time: A Visual History of the Timeline by Maria Popova A chronology of one of our most inescapable metaphors, or what Macbeth has to do with Galileo. I was recently asked to select my all-time favorite books for the lovely Ideal Bookshelf project by The Paris Review’s Thessaly la Force and artist Jane Mount. Ancient Egyptian Religion Religion guided every aspect of Egyptian life. Egyptian religion was based on polytheism, or the worship of many deities, except for during the reign of Akenaton. The Egyptians had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses. Some, such as Amun, were worshipped throughout the whole country, while others had only a local following. Often gods and goddesses were represented as part human and part animal.
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius (/ɔːˈriːliəs/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus;[notes 1] 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. He was a practitioner of Stoicism, and his untitled writing, commonly known as the Meditations, is the most significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy.
40 Maps That Will Help You Make Sense of the World If you’re a visual learner like myself, then you know maps, charts and infographics can really help bring data and information to life. Maps can make a point resonate with readers and this collection aims to do just that. Hopefully some of these maps will surprise you and you’ll learn something new. Egypt's Golden Empire . New Kingdom . Religion With many local and national gods, Egyptian religion was a natural response to the mysteries of the universe and reflected the worries of everyday life in the Ancient World. Over the last thousand years, scientific discoveries have helped explain the natural world. We know about our bodies, conception and childbirth, and how diseases spread. We understand how the solar system works, the relationship of the earth, the moon and the sun, and therefore what causes day and night.
free archive The Royal Society continues to support scientific discovery by allowing free access to more than 250 years of leading research. From October 2011, our world-famous journal archive - comprising more than 69,000 articles - will be opened up and all articles more than 70 years old will be made permanently free to access. The Royal Society is the world's oldest scientific publisher and, as such, our archive is the most comprehensive in science. Treasures in the archive include Isaac Newton's first published scientific paper, geological work by a young Charles Darwin, and Benjamin Franklin's celebrated account of his electrical kite experiment.
The Battle of Bannockburn On 23 and 24 June 1314, Robert the Bruce faced King Edward II at Bannockburn, near Stirling. The Scots army was outnumbered almost three to one. Edward had more than 2000 battle-hardened knights to Bruce’s 500 horsemen. A mere 6000 Scots foot soldiers faced Edward’s force of 16,000 infantry. It was the first time since Falkirk that an English king had led his army in battle in Scotland. In 1298 Edward Longshanks had destroyed Wallace’s army. Art Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. This article focuses primarily on the visual arts, which includes the creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts, it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example.
Ancient Egypt: Art Fragment of a Painted Floor Plaster, pigment New Kingdom, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1352-1336 B.C. Tell el-Amarna Gift of the Egypt Exploration Society, 1922 OIM 120 At Tell el-Amarna, the capital city of the Pharaoh Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, the floors of many buildings were brightly painted with naturalistic scenes. Internet History Sourcebooks Project Internet History Sourcebooks Project Paul Halsall, Editor Last Modified: Dec 11 | linked pages may have been updated more recently The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use.
EyeWitness To The Middle Ages and Renaissance Life in a Christian Monastery, ca. 585"When he was dead his body was not placed with the bodies of the brethren, but a grave was dug in the dung pit, and his body was flung down into it. . . " Crime and punishment in a medieval monastery: the monastery's Abbott provides insight into the monastic life. The Vikings Discover America, ca. 1000"There was no want of salmon either in the river or in the lake." Five hundred years before Columbus, the Vikings discover a New World. Invasion of England, 1066The Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England described through the images of the 900 year-old Bayeux Tapestry.
The 25 Biggest Mysteries of History - List25 - StumbleUpon Although they say curiosity has the power to somehow kill your cat, it seems that humans are immune. We would however, suggest putting Pooky away (just in case) because we are about to unleash the biggest mysteries known to man. Although some of these mysteries are only on the list as a result of their infamy, some are genuinely baffling, and if you manage to solve any of them leave a comment below so that we can cross them off. About David Pegg After helping found the United Nations, the United States, and United Airlines, David consigned himself to a transient life of writing lists and sleeping on park benches.