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Emerging in Sumer in the late 4th millennium BC (the Uruk IV period), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller, from about 1,000 in the Early Bronze Age to about 400 in Late Bronze Age (Hittite cuneiform). The system consists of a combination of logophonetic, consonantal alphabetic and syllabic signs.[2] The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hattic, Hurrian, and Urartian languages, and it inspired the Ugaritic and Old Persian alphabets. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Between half a million and two million cuneiform tablets are estimated to have been excavated in modern times. History[edit] Proto-literate period[edit] Sumerian inscription in monumental archaic style, c. 26th century BC Decipherment[edit] Related:  Sumerer

Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea (/ɨˈdʒiːən/; Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] ( ); Turkish: Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi[2]) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus. The sea was traditionally known as Archipelago (in Greek, Αρχιπέλαγος, meaning "chief sea"), but in English this word's meaning has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally, to any island group. Etymology[edit] A possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = "waves" (Hesychius of Alexandria; metaphorical use of αἴξ (aix) "goat"), hence "wavy sea", cf. also αἰγιαλός (aigialos = aiges (waves) + hals (sea)),[3] hence meaning "sea-shore". In some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea (Бело море, Belo more in Serbian and Macedonian and Бяло море Byalo more in Bulgarian).[4]

Our sixty-minute hour comes from Sumerian - News 2010 Sumerian is a dead language that is not related to any other language. Howeverr, Bram Jagersma managed to compile a grammar of the language, based on inscriptions and clay tablets. Traces of the Sumerian number system can still be seen in our sixty-minute hour. Jagersma received his PhD on 4 November. Supplanted Until 4,000 years ago, Sumarian was a living language in the south of Iraq. Cuneiform The writings - hundreds of inscriptions and many tens of thousands of clay tablets from the period 2500 to 2000 BC were written in cuneiform script, invented by the Sumerians themselves. Word and sound symbols One very obviouis characteristic of Sumerian script is that everything is written continuously. Finite verb form as a complete sentence These prefixes and suffixes express a broad range of meanings, including time, aspect, modus, person and the number both of the subject, the direct object or the indirect object, and certain adjuncts. Descriptive linguistics Jigsaw puzzle Links

Dunnage Dunnage is an inexpensive or waste material used to load and secure cargo during transportation, or support jacks, pipes, air conditioning and other equipment above the roof of a building. International Laws[edit] Construction[edit] In construction, dunnage is often scrap wood or disposable material manufactured for the purpose which is placed on the ground to raise construction materials to allow access for forklifts and slings for hoisting, and to protect it from the elements. Term “dunnage” is also widely used in construction when referred to the structural elements, supporting various mechanical equipment installed on the roof such as HVAC roof top units, condensers, emergency generators, cooling and chilling towers etc. Dunnage bags[edit] Stabilizing capabilities of dunnage bags in container Application of dunnage bags in container Dunnage bags are air-filled pouches that can be used to stabilize, secure and protect cargo during transportation. Ships[edit] Shipbuilding[edit] Dunnage

Sumerian cuneiform script and Sumerian language Sumerian was spoken in Sumer in southern Mesopotamia (part of modern Iraq) from perhaps the 4th millennium BC until about 2,000 BC, when it was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language, though continued to be used in writing for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes until about the 1st century AD. Sumerian is not related to any other known language so is classified as a language isolate. Sumerian cuneiform Sumerian cuneiform is the earliest known writing system. Its origins can be traced back to about 8,000 BC and it developed from the pictographs and other symbols used to represent trade goods and livestock on clay tablets. Examples of the clay tokens Over time they realised that the tokens were not needed as they could make the symbols in the clay. The name 'cuneiform' means 'wedge-shaped' and comes from the Latin cuneus (wedge). By about 2,800 BC some of the Sumerian glyphs were being used to represent sounds using the rebus principle. Notable features Sumerian syllabic glyphs

McClung Museum - Egyptian Scarabs By far the most important amulet in ancient Egypt was the scarab, symbolically as sacred to the Egyptians as the cross is to Christians. Scarabs were already known in the Old Kingdom, and in the First Intermediate Period the undersides were decorated. They were probably sacred in the Prehistoric Period and had a role in the early worship of animals, judging from the actual beetles that were found stored in jars buried with the deceased and from those found in graves during the time of King Den of Dynasty I. A scaraboid-shaped alabaster box from Tarkhan seems to confirm that the scarab was already venerated at the beginning of Dynasty I. Among the kinds of scarabs are: ornamental scarabs, heart scarabs, winged scarabs, scarabs with the name of a king or queen, marriage scarabs, lion hunt scarabs, commemorative scarabs, scarabs with good wishes and mottos, scarabs with symbols of unknown meaning, and scarabs decorated with figures and animals. The lock and key was unknown in Egypt.

Sumerian The Sumerians were one of the earliest urban societies to emerge in the world, in Southern Mesopotamia more than 5000 years ago. They developed a writing system whose wedge-shaped strokes would influence the style of scripts in the same geographical area for the next 3000 years. Eventually, all of these diverse writing systems, which encompass both logophonetic, consonantal alphabetic, and syllabic systems, became known as cuneiform. It is actually possible to trace the long road of the invention of the Sumerian writing system. Subsequently, the ancient Mesopotamians stopped using clay tokens altogether, and simply impressed the symbol of the clay tokens on wet clay surfaces. You can read more about the previous example at The Sumerian writing system during the early periods was constantly in flux. By 2800 BCE the writing system started to exhibit use of phonetic elements. Related Links Sumerian Language Page.

Oxhide ingot Protector of the ingot, bronze, Enkomi, Cyprus Oxhide ingots are metal slabs, usually of copper but sometimes of tin, produced and widely distributed during the Mediterranean Late Bronze Age (LBA). Their shape resembles the hide of an ox with a protruding handle in each of the ingot’s four corners. Early thought was that each ingot was equivalent to the value of one ox.[1] However, the similarity in shape is simply a coincidence. Context[edit] The appearance of oxhide ingots in the archaeological record corresponds with the beginning of the bulk copper trade in the Mediterranean—approximately 1600 BC.[4] The earliest oxhide ingots found come from Crete and date to the Late Minoan IB.[5] The latest oxhide ingots were found on Sardinia and date to approximately 1000 BC.[6] The copper trade was largely maritime: the principal sites where oxhide ingots are found are at sea, on the coast, and on islands.[7] Purposes[edit] It is uncertain whether the oxhide ingots served as a form of currency.

The Sumerian Word of the Day Troodos Mountains Geology of Troodos[edit] Picture of a campsite in Troodos in 1900 The Troodos mountains are known worldwide for their geology and the presence of undisturbed specimens of ophiolite, the Troodos Ophiolite. These mountains slowly rose from the sea due to the collision of the African and European tectonic plates, a process that eventually formed the island of Cyprus. Climate[edit] Churches[edit] Chapel of the Saint Mary near Klirou village Panagia Forviothissa in Asinou village The region is known for its many Byzantine churches and monasteries, richly decorated with murals, of which the Kykkos monastery is the richest and most famous. Stavros tou AyiasmatiPanayia tou ArakaTimiou Stavrou at PelendriAyios Nikolaos tis StegisPanayia PodithouAssinouAyios loannis Lampadistis at KalopanayiotisPanayia tou MoutoulaArchangel Michael at PedoulasTransfiguration of the Saviour Palaichori Villages of Troodos (selection)[edit] Gallery[edit] See also[edit] Geography of Cyprus References[edit] External links[edit]

L'écriture cunéiforme : mode d'emploi En cette fin de IVe millénaire, les Sumériens venait d'inventer un système complexe qui était composé de différents types de signes : 1) de pictogrammes 2) d'idéogrammes 3) de phonogrammes 4) de déterminatifs 5) de compléments phonétiques haut de page Des pictogrammes, des idéogrammes, des phonogrammes, des déterminatifs et des compléments phonétiques, grâce à l'ensemble de ces signes, il est possible de tout écrire : relevés comptables ou lettres d'amour ! Notre monde moderne n'existerait pas sans l'écriture. Un autre peuple vivait avec les Sumériens : les Akkadiens. Les deux premières langues à utiliser ce système sont donc les Sumériens et les Akkadiens. Le sumérien devint pour l'akkadien un peu ce que la latin fut pour le français.

History of Minoan Crete Geography and Economy of Crete The island of Crete is located in the center of the eastern Mediterranean at the crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe. It measures about 200 Km from east to west, and between 12 to 58 Km from north to south at its narrowest and widest distances, making it one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean sea. Crete's largest modern town is Heraklion (35° 20' latitude, 25° 08' longitude) and its landscape oscillates between tall, rugged mountains, gentle slopes, and plateaus, which are framed by the Aegean coast line to the North, and the Lybian Sea to the south. The temperate climate of Crete with its short, mild winters and its dry, warm summers, along with the fertility of the Cretan plains produces sufficient food supplies to support an affluent local population, and for exports. Besides timber Crete exported food, cypress wood, wine, currants, olive oil, wool, cloth, herbs, and purple dye. Habitation and Chronology of Crete Sub-Minoan Crete (1150-1100 BC)

Sumer Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Situation du Pays de Sumer Ayant été complètement oubliée après les débuts de notre ère, la civilisation de Sumer a été redécouverte durant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle grâce aux fouilles de sites archéologiques du Sud mésopotamien, dont l'exploration s'est poursuivie par la suite, jusqu'à connaître un arrêt en raison des troubles politiques affectant l'Irak à partir des années 1990. En plus des redécouvertes architecturales et artistiques qui furent à plusieurs reprises remarquables, les fouilles ont permis la découverte de dizaines de milliers de tablettes inscrites en écriture cunéiforme, qui est la plus ancienne documentation écrite connue avec celle de l’Égypte antique. À la suite de l'analyse de cette documentation, cette civilisation s'est vite révélée être déterminante dans l'élaboration des civilisations antiques, en premier lieu celle de la Mésopotamie. Conditions d'étude[modifier | modifier le code] Un peuple ? ↑ J.

History of the ancient Levant The Levant is a geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the south, and Mesopotamia in the east. It stretches 400 miles north to south from the Taurus Mountains to the Sinai desert, and 70 to 100 miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian desert.[1] The term is also sometimes used to refer to modern events or states in the region immediately bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Cyprus, Palestinian territories, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. The term normally does not include Anatolia (although at times Cilicia may be included), the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia or any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. The Sinai Peninsula is sometimes included, though it is more considered an intermediate, peripheral or marginal area forming a land bridge between the Levant and northern Egypt. Stone Age[edit] Bronze Age[edit] Iron Age[edit] Classical empires[edit]