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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (Persian: جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى‎), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (Persian: جلال‌الدین محمد رومی‎), Mawlānā or Molānā (Persian: مولانا‎, meaning Our Master), Mawlawī or Molavi (Persian: مولوی‎, meaning My Master), and more popularly in the English-speaking world simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century Persian[1][6] poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic.[7] Iranians, Turks, Afghans, Tajiks, and other Central Asian Muslims as well as the Muslims of South Asia have greatly appreciated his spiritual legacy in the past seven centuries.[8] Rumi's importance is considered to transcend national and ethnic borders. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats. In 2007, he was described as the "most popular poet in America."[9] Name Life Jalal ad-Din Rumi gathers Sufi mystics. Why should I seek? Hussam implored Rumi to write more. Teachings Major works Related:  Wikipedia AWikipedia B

Sufi whirling In the symbolism of the Sema ritual, the semazen's camel's hair hat (sikke) represents the tombstone of the ego; his wide, white skirt (tennure) represents the ego's shroud. By removing his black cloak (hırka), he is spiritually reborn to the truth. At the beginning of the Sema, by holding his arms crosswise, the semazen appears to represent the number one, thus testifying to God's unity. While whirling, his arms are open: his right arm is directed to the sky, ready to receive God's beneficence; his left hand, upon which his eyes are fastened, is turned toward the earth. The semazen conveys God's spiritual gift to those who are witnessing the Sema. Revolving from right to left around the heart, the semazen embraces all humanity with love. Origin[edit] Practice[edit] A dervish practices multiple rituals, the primary of which is the dhikr, a remembering of Allah.[3] The dhikr involves recitation of devotional Islamic prayer. Today[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ "The Sema of the Mevlevi".

Actualisation de Spinoza - le portail des livres et des idées - Vimperator Philosophie Spinoza. L'expérience et l'infini Éditeur : Armand Colin D’autres formules corroborent cet axe. Ainsi vont les explications de l’auteur. Quant à la thèse centrale, articulée, nous l’avons dit, autour de l’expérience, elle est ressaisie constamment, au fil des pages de l’ouvrage. Autant affirmer que la philosophie de Spinoza confère à la question de l’actualité l’aspect d’une fécondité qu’il est possible de dire inépuisable plutôt qu’imprévisible. Enfin, les derniers chapitres consacrés à la politique soulignent à nouveau qu’il est possible de penser la politique en dehors de toute téléologie, et en fonction d’une politique de la liberté.

Revolutions of 1989 The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the fall of communism in the communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The period is sometimes called the Autumn of Nations,[citation needed] a play on the term "Spring of Nations", used to describe the Revolutions of 1848. The events began in Poland in 1989,[1][2] and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. The adoption of varying forms of market economy immediately resulted in a general decline in living standards,[6] birth rates and life expectancies in post-Communist States, together with side effects including the rise of business oligarchs in countries such as Russia, and highly disproportional social and economic development. Background[edit] The Development of the Communist Bloc[edit] During the interwar period, Communism had been on the rise in many parts of the world (e.g. in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, it had grown popular in the urban areas throughout the 1920s).

Mevlevi Order Whirling Dervishes perform in the Galata Mevlevihane (Mevlevi Lodge), Istanbul. In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed the "The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony" of Turkey as amongst the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[9] Principles[edit] Model of a dervish studying The Mawlawi order was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death, particularly by his successor Hüsamettin Çelebi who decided to build a mausoleum for Mawlâna, and then Mawlâna's son, Baha al-Din Muhammad-i Walad (or Çelebi, Chelebi, meaning "fully initiated"). Rumi has said in reference to Sema: For them it is the Sema of this world and the other. Origin of Sama[edit] Sama[edit] The Sama was practised in the samahane (ritual hall) according to a precisely prescribed symbolic ritual with the dervishes whirling in a circle around their sheikh, who is the only one whirling around his axis. Sama ceremonies are broken up into four parts which all have their own meanings. History[edit] Mevlana Museum in Konya Notes[edit]

Observatoire Zététique - Bienvenue - Vimperator History of Japan The history of Japan encompasses the history of the islands of Japan and the Japanese people, spanning the ancient history of the region to the modern history of Japan as a nation state. Following the last ice age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese archipelago fostered human development. The earliest-known pottery found in Japan belongs to the Jōmon period. The first known written reference to Japan is in the brief information given in Twenty-Four Histories in the 1st century AD. The first permanent capital was founded in 710 at Nara, which became a center of Buddhist art, religion and culture. In the 1860s, the Meiji period began, and the new national leadership systematically ended feudalism and transformed an isolated, underdeveloped island country, into a world power that closely followed Western models. The U.S. occupied Japan until 1952. Japanese prehistory[edit] Paleolithic Age[edit] Jōmon period[edit] A Middle Jōmon vessel (3000–2000 BC) Yayoi period[edit]

Nafs Three principal stages of nafs[edit] There are three principal stages of nafs specifically mentioned in the Qur'an. They are stages in the process of development, refinement and mastery of the nafs.[3] [4] The inciting nafs (an-nafs al-ʾammārah)[edit] In its primitive stage the nafs incites us to commit evil: this is the nafs as the lower self, the base instincts.[5] In the eponymous Sura of the Qur'an, Yusuf says "Yet I claim not that my nafs was innocent: Verily the nafs incites to evil." Islam emphasises the importance of fighting the inciting nafs. The Qur'an enjoins the faithful "to hinder the nafs from lust",[Quran 79:40] and another traditional narration warns that "the worst enemy you have is [the nafs] between your sides Animal imagery is often used to describe the nafs. The self-accusing nafs (an-nafs al-luwwāmah)[edit] In Sura al-Qiyama the Qur'an mentions "the self-accusing nafs". The nafs at peace (an-nafs al-muṭmaʾinnah)[edit] Four additional stages of nafs[edit] See also[edit]

Douglas Hofstadter - Person Paper on Purity in Language - Vimperator William Satire (alias Douglas R. Hofstadter) From Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern by Douglas R. Hofstadter, Basic Books, 1985. (Original web version: It's high time someone blew the whistle on all the silly prattle about revamping our language to suit the purposes of certain political fanatics. Most of the clamor, as you certainly know by now, revolves around the age-old usage of the noun "white" and words built from it, such as chairwhite, mailwhite, repairwhite, clergywhite, middlewhite, Frenchwhite, forewhite, whitepower, whiteslaughter, oneupuwhiteship, straw white, whitehandle, and so on. There is nothing denigrating to black people in being subsumed under the rubric "white"-no more than under the rubric "person." But Niss Moses would have you sit up and start hollering "Racism!" Another suggestion is that the plural pronoun "they" be used in place of the inclusive "whe." But Nrs. As for Nrs. Nrs.

Habsburg Monarchy The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces, which were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780, and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,[3] when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[4][5] The head of the House of Habsburg was often elected Holy Roman Emperor until the Empire's dissolution in 1806.[6][7] The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, and most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties. Origins and expansion[edit] Terminology[edit] Territories[edit]