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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production.[1] Most people with chronic bronchitis have COPD.[2] Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role.[3] In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is from poorly vented cooking and heating fires. COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to the known causes. This includes efforts to decrease rates of smoking and to improve indoor and outdoor air quality. Worldwide, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the population. Signs and symptoms[edit] Cough[edit] Shortness of breath[edit] Other features[edit] Exacerbation[edit]

Related:  Lower respiratory tract issues

Lung cancer If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. The main primary types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Clara cell They are also known by their descriptive name of "bronchiolar exocrine cells".[2] Name[edit] Club cells were previously called Clara cells as they were originally described by their namesake, Max Clara in 1937. Clara was born in South Tyrol in 1899 and died in 1966.

Hematoma A hematoma or haematoma, is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels,[1] usually in liquid form within the tissue. An ecchymosis, commonly (although erroneously) called a bruise, is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm.[2] Internal bleeding is generally considered to be a spreading of blood within the abdomen or skull, not within muscle.[citation needed] It is not to be confused with hemangioma which is an abnormal build up of blood vessels in the skin or internal organs. Pneumonia Pneumonia (nu-mo'ne-a) is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.[1][2] It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.[1][3] Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.[4] Diagnostic tools include x-rays and culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available.

File:Hematopoiesis simple.svg Cancel Edit Delete Preview revert Text of the note (may include Wiki markup) Could not save your note (edit conflict or other problem). Necrotizing fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis (/ˈnɛkrəˌtaɪzɪŋ ˌfæʃiˈaɪtɪs/ or /ˌfæs-/) or NF, commonly known as flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria syndrome,[1] is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue. The most consistent feature of Necrotizing Fasciitis was first described in 1952 by Wilson, as necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia with relative sparing of the underlying muscle.[2] Necrotizing fasciitis progresses rapidly, having greater risk of developing in the immunocompromised due to conditions such as diabetes or cancer. It is a severe disease of sudden onset and is usually treated immediately with surgical debridement and high doses of intravenous antibiotics,[3] with delay in surgical treatment being associated with higher mortality.

Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expectorated, or "coughed up", from the respiratory tract). Acute bronchitis often occurs during the course of an acute viral illness such as the common cold or influenza. Viruses cause about 90% of acute bronchitis cases, whereas bacteria account for about 10%.[5][6] Chronic bronchitis, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Chronic bronchitis usually develops due to recurrent injury to the airways caused by inhaled irritants.

Figure 1 Resolution: standard / high The distal airway epithelium contains alveolar type I and type II cells and Clara cells, which possess various pumps and channels that achieve clearance of edema fluid. Sodium is transported through channels on the apical membrane and extruded from the cell by the Na+/K+-ATPase located on the basolateral membrane. This transport generates a sodium gradient that drives the transport of water, which is accomplished in part through water channels. AQP, aquaporin; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CNG, cyclic nucleotide-gated; ENaC, epithelial Na+channel. From Matthay and coworkers [3], with permission from the American Physiological Society. Inflammatory bowel disease Classification[edit] The main forms of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Inflammatory bowel diseases are considered autoimmune diseases, in which the body's own immune system attacks elements of the digestive system.[4] Accounting for far fewer cases are other forms of IBD, which are not always classified as typical IBD:

Tuberculosis The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests.

BIOL 210 Photo-montage [Go to semester: Fall 2002, Fall 2003, Spring 2005, Spring 2006] The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to teach principles of electron optics and digital imaging for the study of surface morphology and microstructure of materials. The following micrographs were captured by students in BIOL 210. (below, left) Cleavage in a sample of citrine, a semi-precious stone. Encephalopathy Encephalopathy /ɛnˌsɛfəˈlɒpəθi/ means disorder or disease of the brain.[1] In modern usage, encephalopathy does not refer to a single disease, but rather to a syndrome of global brain dysfunction; this syndrome can have many different organic and inorganic causes. Terminology[edit] In some contexts it refers to permanent (or degenerative)[2] brain injury, and in others it is reversible. It can be due to direct injury to the brain, or illness remote from the brain.

Asthma Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[4] Its diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time and spirometry.[5] It is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate.[6] Asthma may also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic)[7] where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing type 1 hypersensitivity reactions.[8] Signs and symptoms Associated conditions A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea.[22] Psychological disorders are also more common,[23] with anxiety disorders occurring in between 16–52% and mood disorders in 14–41%.[24] However, it is not known if asthma causes psychological problems or if psychological problems lead to asthma.[25] Causes