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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production.[1] Most people with chronic bronchitis have COPD.[2] Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role.[3] In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is from poorly vented cooking and heating fires. COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to the known causes. Worldwide, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the population. Signs and symptoms[edit] Cough[edit] Shortness of breath[edit] Other features[edit] Exacerbation[edit] Cause[edit] Smoking[edit] Percentage of females smoking tobacco as of the late 1990s early 2000s Emphysema Emphysema gradually damages the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema. Your lungs' alveoli are clustered like bunches of grapes. When you exhale, the damaged alveoli don't work properly and old air becomes trapped, leaving no room for fresh, oxygen-rich air to enter. SymptomsApr. 05, 2014 References What is COPD? Natural Therapies for Emphysema and ... Archive: Dr Tom 17 Progress of Emphysema Q. Why does emphysema continue to progress even after you get rid of the cause or the irritant? And how fast in ml (on average) does your lung FEV1 go down, in a male with emphysema? Ringbo A. Dear Ringbo, Good question. Some of the inflammation in small airways smolders on in some, and some dropping out of lung sacs, i.e. emphysema, occurs even after irritants are avoided. Dr. Questions About Nebulizers, Medicine, and Oxygen Q. Joel Dear Joel, Q.1. A.There is no difference between using the compressor pump on a Pulmo-Aide, and using compressed air or oxygen to run a nebulizer. Q.2. A. Q.3. A. Q.4. A. 100% oxygen by nasal cannula at 2 liters per minute is diluted by the air you breathe. Postural Drainage for Neonates Q. Marty A. For additional information see the American Association for Respiratory Care’s Clinical Practice Guideline for Postural Drainage Therapy. Trouble Breathing Q. I had tests at the hospital. Lorenzo, Milan, Italy A. Home Oximeter Use Q. Jeff A. A.

Clara cell They are also known by their descriptive name of "bronchiolar exocrine cells".[2] Name[edit] Club cells were previously called Clara cells as they were originally described by their namesake, Max Clara in 1937. One of the main functions of club cells is to protect the bronchiolar epithelium. Mechanism[edit] The respiratory bronchioles represent the transition from the conducting portion to the respiratory portion of the respiratory system. Role in disease[edit] Club cells contain tryptase, which is believed to be responsible for cleaving the hemagglutinin surface protein of influenza A virus, thereby activating it and causing the symptoms of flu.[7] When the l7Rn6 protein is disrupted in mice, these mice display severe emphysema at birth as a result of disorganization of the Golgi apparatus and formation of aberrant vesicular structures within clara cells.[8] Malignant club cells are also seen in bronchioalveolar carcinoma of the lung See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD Board Index: emphysema progress ... was the most help.I used the patch for two weeks and the Nicotrol inhaler a couple times. That was two years ago. I didn't quit soon enough and have now seen my emphysema progress to where I expect to be on O2 within a year. ... (15 replies) ... ... ray that hinted at emphysema came in the middle of that disease process. ... (3 replies) ... ... ... hi congrats to you and well done! ... it date as it made me way to nervous to think of it so when I got down to one cigarette one night I just did it. ... heat. ... it slow and steady. ... e a statistic. ... ... then she said that you have done the right thing giving up smoking and that even if it is emphysema then you could possibly be one of those where the disease doesn't progress or progresses very slowly. ... (8 replies) ... d go to the doctor whenever I feel the least bit of bronchial irritation or congestion with a cold. ... s or early 80's. ... ... ... he said the spirometry numbers would be different. ... ...

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What is COPD? Do not use Spiriva® HandiHaler® (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder) if you are allergic to tiotropium or ipratropium (e.g., Atrovent®) or any of the ingredients in SPIRIVA. If your breathing suddenly worsens, your face, throat, lips, or tongue swells, you get hives, itching or rash, stop taking SPIRIVA and seek immediate medical help. Continued on next page Please see additional Important Safety Information on the next page. Please see attached full Prescribing Information, Patient Information, and Instructions for Use. SPIRIVA HandiHaler is not a rescue medicine and should not be used for treating sudden breathing problems. Do not swallow SPIRIVA capsules. If you have vision changes or eye pain or if you have difficulty passing urine or painful urination, stop taking SPIRIVA and call your doctor right away. Tell your doctor if you have glaucoma, problems passing urine or an enlarged prostate, as these may worsen with SPIRIVA. The most common side effect with SPIRIVA is dry mouth.

Figure 1 Resolution: standard / high The distal airway epithelium contains alveolar type I and type II cells and Clara cells, which possess various pumps and channels that achieve clearance of edema fluid. Sodium is transported through channels on the apical membrane and extruded from the cell by the Na+/K+-ATPase located on the basolateral membrane. This transport generates a sodium gradient that drives the transport of water, which is accomplished in part through water channels. AQP, aquaporin; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CNG, cyclic nucleotide-gated; ENaC, epithelial Na+channel. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of COPD? When symptoms first occur, most people ignore them as they think that they are related to smoking, i.e. "It’s just a smoker’s cough" or "I’m just winded/breathless from being out of shape". These symptoms can worsen to the point that people are motivated to stop smoking in order to control the symptoms. Others let the symptoms control them. Is coughing a symptom of COPD? Cough can be expected with COPD. What can I do to treat cough? When should I call my healthcare provider about my cough? Incontinence (inability to control passing urine during cough) may be another problem caused by coughing. Is shortness of breath (breathlessness) a symptom of COPD? Yes, shortness of breath, also known by the term breathlessness or the medical term of dyspnea, is a common symptom of COPD. What can I do to treat breathlessness? When should I call my healthcare provider about my breathlessness? Is sputum production a symptom of COPD? It is normal for the airways to produce several ounces of sputum a day.

BIOL 210 Photo-montage [Go to semester: Fall 2002, Fall 2003, Spring 2005, Spring 2006] The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to teach principles of electron optics and digital imaging for the study of surface morphology and microstructure of materials. The following micrographs were captured by students in BIOL 210. (below, left) Cleavage in a sample of citrine, a semi-precious stone. (below, left) Lumenal surface of murine intestine. (below, left) Specialized, dome-shaped Clara cells are visible in this micrograph of murine lung. (below, left) A posterior view of an aphid on leaf tissue. (below, left) A branching blood vessel found in a murine liver sample. (below, left) The aperature of an earthworm.