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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production.[1] Most people with chronic bronchitis have COPD.[2] Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role.[3] In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is from poorly vented cooking and heating fires. COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to the known causes. Worldwide, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the population. Signs and symptoms[edit] Cough[edit] Shortness of breath[edit] Other features[edit] Exacerbation[edit] Cause[edit] Smoking[edit] Percentage of females smoking tobacco as of the late 1990s early 2000s Related:  Lower respiratory tract issues Lung cancer If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. The main primary types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.[1] The vast majority (80–90%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.[1][2] About 10–15% of cases occur in people who have never smoked.[3] These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors[4] and exposure to radon gas,[4] asbestos,[5] or other forms of air pollution,[4] including second-hand smoke.[6][7] Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans. Signs and symptoms[edit] Signs and symptoms which may suggest lung cancer include:[1] Pneumonia Pneumonia (nu-mo'ne-a) is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.[1][2] It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.[1][3] Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.[4] Diagnostic tools include x-rays and culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is, in general, admitted to hospital. Signs and symptoms Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia Fever is not very specific, as it occurs in many other common illnesses, and may be absent in those with severe disease or malnutrition. Cause Bacteria Viruses Fungi Parasites Idiopathic Mechanisms Viral Bacterial Diagnosis Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expectorated, or "coughed up", from the respiratory tract). Acute bronchitis often occurs during the course of an acute viral illness such as the common cold or influenza. Viruses cause about 90% of acute bronchitis cases, whereas bacteria account for about 10%.[5][6] Chronic bronchitis, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Acute bronchitis[edit] Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi usually caused by viruses or bacteria. Bronchitis may be diagnosed by a health care provider during a thorough physical examination. Treatment for acute bronchitis is primarily symptomatic. Chronic bronchitis[edit] References[edit]

Clara cell They are also known by their descriptive name of "bronchiolar exocrine cells".[2] Name[edit] Club cells were previously called Clara cells as they were originally described by their namesake, Max Clara in 1937. One of the main functions of club cells is to protect the bronchiolar epithelium. Mechanism[edit] The respiratory bronchioles represent the transition from the conducting portion to the respiratory portion of the respiratory system. Role in disease[edit] Club cells contain tryptase, which is believed to be responsible for cleaving the hemagglutinin surface protein of influenza A virus, thereby activating it and causing the symptoms of flu.[7] When the l7Rn6 protein is disrupted in mice, these mice display severe emphysema at birth as a result of disorganization of the Golgi apparatus and formation of aberrant vesicular structures within clara cells.[8] Malignant club cells are also seen in bronchioalveolar carcinoma of the lung See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Tuberculosis The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Signs and symptoms The main symptoms of variants and stages of tuberculosis are given,[9] with many symptoms overlapping with other variants, while others are more (but not entirely) specific for certain variants. Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis).[10] Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB, as well.[10] Pulmonary Extrapulmonary Causes Mycobacteria Risk factors Mechanism Transmission Pathogenesis

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Asthma Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[4] Its diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time and spirometry.[5] It is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate.[6] Asthma may also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic)[7] where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing type 1 hypersensitivity reactions.[8] Signs and symptoms Associated conditions A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea.[22] Psychological disorders are also more common,[23] with anxiety disorders occurring in between 16–52% and mood disorders in 14–41%.[24] However, it is not known if asthma causes psychological problems or if psychological problems lead to asthma.[25] Causes Others

Figure 1 Resolution: standard / high The distal airway epithelium contains alveolar type I and type II cells and Clara cells, which possess various pumps and channels that achieve clearance of edema fluid. Sodium is transported through channels on the apical membrane and extruded from the cell by the Na+/K+-ATPase located on the basolateral membrane. This transport generates a sodium gradient that drives the transport of water, which is accomplished in part through water channels. AQP, aquaporin; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CNG, cyclic nucleotide-gated; ENaC, epithelial Na+channel. BIOL 210 Photo-montage [Go to semester: Fall 2002, Fall 2003, Spring 2005, Spring 2006] The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to teach principles of electron optics and digital imaging for the study of surface morphology and microstructure of materials. The following micrographs were captured by students in BIOL 210. (below, left) Cleavage in a sample of citrine, a semi-precious stone. (below, left) Lumenal surface of murine intestine. (below, left) Specialized, dome-shaped Clara cells are visible in this micrograph of murine lung. (below, left) A posterior view of an aphid on leaf tissue. (below, left) A branching blood vessel found in a murine liver sample. (below, left) The aperature of an earthworm.

Quantitative assessment of markers for cell sen... [Exp Gerontol. 2010