The Hedonic (or Happiness) Set Point has gained interest throughout the field of positive psychology where it has been developed and revised further. Given that hedonic adaptation generally demonstrates that a person's long term happiness is not significantly affected by otherwise impactful events, positive psychology has concerned itself with the discovery of things that can lead to lasting changes in happiness levels. Overview Happiness seems to be more like a thermostat, since our temperaments tend to bring us back towards a certain happiness level (a tendency influenced by carefully chosen activities and habits). Hedonic adaptation is a process or mechanism that reduces the affective impact of emotional events. Hedonic adaptation can occur in a variety of ways. Major theoretical approaches Behavioral/psychological approach Major empirical findings Wildeman, Turney, Schnittker (2014) studied the effects of imprisonment on one’s baseline level of well-being.
• Psychologie Développement personnel
Social comparison theorySocial comparison theory was initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954. Social comparison theory is centered on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations. The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self. Following the initial theory, research began to focus on social comparison as a way of self-enhancement, introducing the concepts of downward and upward comparisons and expanding the motivations of social comparisons. Initial framework In the initial theory, Festinger provided nine main hypotheses. Theoretical advances Since its inception, the initial framework has undergone several advances. Self-evaluation and self-enhancement Upward and downward social comparisons Competitiveness Social status Proximity to a standard
BPS Occupational Digest« Pourquoi sommes-nous heureux ? » demande Dan Gilbert. | TED Talk Subtitles and TranscriptMichael EysenckMichael William Eysenck (born 8 February 1944) is a British academic psychologist, and is an emeritus professor in psychology at Royal Holloway, University of London. He also holds an appointment as Professorial Fellow at Roehampton University. His research focuses on cognitive factors affecting anxiety. Eysenck has written and co-written many publications, including several textbooks. In the late 1990s, he developed the theory of the 'hedonic treadmill', stating that humans are predisposed by genetics to plateau at a certain level of happiness, and that the occurrence of novel happy events merely elevates this level temporarily. He is the son of the noted psychologist Hans Jürgen Eysenck. Research interests Eysenck's research focuses mainly on cognitive factors associated with anxiety in normal and clinical populations. Specific interests: Cognitive factors in anxiety, including clinical anxiety and implications for therapy. Career history Portrait
Regression toward the meanIn statistics , regression toward (or to ) the mean is the phenomenon that if a variable is extreme on its first measurement, it will tend to be closer to the average on its second measurement—and, paradoxically, if it is extreme on its second measurement, it will tend to have been closer to the average on its first. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] To avoid making wrong inferences, regression toward the mean must be considered when designing scientific experiments and interpreting data. The conditions under which regression toward the mean occurs depend on the way the term is mathematically defined. Sir Francis Galton first observed the phenomenon in the context of simple linear regression of data points. Historically, what is now called regression toward the mean has also been called reversion to the mean and reversion to mediocrity . In finance, the term mean reversion has a different meaning. Conceptual background [ edit ] The following is a second example of regression toward the mean. Find , where
Le test du marshmallowSelon certaines études scientifiques, l'expérience du marshmallow, c’est LE test qui permet le mieux de prédire la réussite dans la vie d'un individu. Pourquoi ? Parce qu'elle permet de mesurer la sensibilité à la gratification différée. Temps de lecture : environ 15 mn. 1 - LE TEST DU MARSHMALLOW L’expérience de Walter Mischel On voulait vous présenter deux personnes. Ils ont tous les deux six ans, et pas mal de trucs en commun. Ils se disent : “Génial, un marshmallow” ! Nico gère. Ce matin, Nico est encore en retard au boulot : ils se sont faits un super petit déj’ avec sa copine, et ça a duré plus longtemps que prévu. Pourtant, il n'y avait rien de particulier dans ce marshmallow. Ce test, c’est surtout une expérience qui permet de mesurer, selon le jargon des chercheurs comportementalistes, la sensibilité à la gratification différée : c’est à dire la capacité d’un individu à retarder l’obtention d’une récompense pour augmenter son montant. Tout ça, ça paraît assez intuitif.
Happiness economicsSubject classifications The subject may be categorized in various ways, depending on specificity, intersection, and cross-classification. For example, within the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes, it has been categorized under: Welfare economics at JEL: D63 – Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and MeasurementHealth, education, and welfare at JEL: I31 – General Welfare; Basic needs; Living standards; Quality of life; HappinessDemographic economics at JEL:J18 – Public Policy. Metrology Given its very nature, reported happiness is subjective. It is difficult to compare one person’s happiness with another's. It can be especially difficult to compare happiness across cultures. However, many happiness economists believe they have solved this comparison problem. Micro-econometric happiness equations have the standard form: . In this equation is the reported well-being of individual at time , and Determinants Leisure
List of cognitive biasesCognitive biases are systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, often confirmed by research in psychology and behavioral economics . Although the reality of these biases is confirmed by replicable research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. [ 1 ] Some are effects of information-processing rules (i.e. mental shortcuts), called heuristics , that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. Such effects are called cognitive biases . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Biases in judgment or decision-making can also result from motivation , such as when beliefs are distorted by wishful thinking . Some biases have a variety of cognitive ("cold") or motivational ("hot") explanations. Both effects can be present at the same time. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] There are also controversies as to whether some of these biases count as truly irrational or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior.
Cognitive DissonanceUnderstanding this experiment sheds a brilliant light on the dark world of our inner motivations. The ground-breaking social psychological experiment of Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) provides a central insight into the stories we tell ourselves about why we think and behave the way we do. The experiment is filled with ingenious deception so the best way to understand it is to imagine you are taking part. So sit back, relax and travel back. The time is 1959 and you are an undergraduate student at Stanford University… As part of your course you agree to take part in an experiment on ‘measures of performance’. Little do you know, the experiment will actually become a classic in social psychology. The set-up Once in the lab you are told the experiment is about how your expectations affect the actual experience of a task. Perhaps you wonder why you’re being told all this, but nevertheless it makes it seem a bit more exciting now that you know some of the mechanics behind the experiment.