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Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, « Agence pour les projets de recherche avancée de défense ») est une agence du département de la Défense des États-Unis chargée de la recherche et développement des nouvelles technologies destinées à un usage militaire. Jusqu’à aujourd’hui, la DARPA a été à l’origine du développement de nombreuses technologies qui ont eu des conséquences considérables dans le monde entier dont notamment les réseaux informatiques (notamment l’ARPANET qui a fini par devenir Internet) et le NLS (sigle représentant, en anglais, l’expression oN-Line System, en français, littéralement, Système en ligne) qui a été à la fois le premier système hypertexte et un précurseur important des interfaces graphiques devenues omniprésentes de nos jours. Historique[modifier | modifier le code] Film promotionnel de la DARPA pour son 50e anniversaire en 2008. Depuis sa naissance le nom de cette agence a quelque peu varié.

Interface neuronale directe Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir IND et BCI. Schéma d'une interface neuronale directe Une interface neuronale directe - aussi appelée IND ou BCI[1] (Brain-Computer Interface : Interface Cerveau-Machine, ou encore Interface Cerveau-Ordinateur) est une interface de communication directe entre un cerveau et un dispositif externe (un ordinateur, un système électronique, etc.). L'IND peut être unidirectionnelle ou bidirectionnelle. Ce type de périphérique est fondamentalement différent de toute autre interface homme-machine : une telle liaison ne requiert en effet aucune transformation préalable du signal électrique émis par l’activité cérébrale en activité musculaire (psychomotrice), cette dernière étant usuellement traduite en signal d’entrée pour la machine. Principe[modifier | modifier le code] Une IND unidirectionnelle : En revanche, une IND bidirectionnelle : Historique[modifier | modifier le code] Premiers travaux[modifier | modifier le code]

BrainGate Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Schéma d'une interface neuronale directe BrainGate est un système d'implants neuronaux mis au point par la société de bio-technologie Cyberkinetics en 2003, en collaboration avec le département de Neurosciences à l'Université Brown. Applications[modifier | modifier le code] En pratique[modifier | modifier le code] La puce utilise une centaine d'électrodes chacune épaisse comme un cheveu, qui réagissent à la signature électromagnétique des neurones dans certaines régions spécifiques du cerveau, par exemple la zone qui contrôle les mouvements du bras. L'activité est traduite en signaux électriques qui sont ensuite envoyés et décodés à l'aide d'un programme, qui peut bouger soit un bras robotisé soit un curseur informatique. En plus d'une analyse en temps réel des modèles neuronaux pour relayer un mouvement, le système BrainGate est aussi capable d'enregistrer des données électriques pour des analyses ultérieures.

Neuroprosthetics Neuroprosthetics (also called neural prosthetics) is a discipline related to neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing neural prostheses. They are sometimes contrasted with a brain–computer interface, which connects the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality. Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease. Cochlear implants provide an example of such devices. These implantable devices are also commonly used in animal experimentation as a tool to aid neuroscientists in developing a greater understanding of the brain and its functioning. Accurately probing and recording the electrical signals in the brain would help better understand the relationship among a local population of neurons that are responsible for a specific function. History[edit] Visual prosthetics[edit] Auditory prosthetics[edit]

Brain-to-brain coupling: a mechanism for cre... [Trends Cogn Sci. 2012 Global Consciousness Project -- consciousness, group consciousness, mind Blue Brain Project The Blue Brain Project is an attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse-engineering the mammalian brain down to the molecular level. The aim of the project, founded in May 2005 by the Brain and Mind Institute of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, is to study the brain's architectural and functional principles. There are a number of sub-projects, including the Cajal Blue Brain, coordinated by the Supercomputing and Visualization Center of Madrid (CeSViMa), and others run by universities and independent laboratories. Goals[edit] Neocortical column modelling[edit] The initial goal of the project, completed in December 2006,[4] was the simulation of a rat neocortical column, which is considered by some researchers to be the smallest functional unit of the neocortex[5][6] (the part of the brain thought to be responsible for higher functions such as conscious thought). Progress[edit] By 2005 the first single cellular model was completed. Funding[edit]

Cognitive neuroscience of human social beha... [Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003 Transkranielle Magnetstimulation – Wikipedia De transkranielle Magnetstimulation De transkranielle Magnetstimulation, kuaz TMS, is a ned-invasive medizinische Methode, de wo zua Diagnostik und Therapie vawendt wead. Mit da Huif vo stoakn Magnetfäida wean Tei vom Hian stimuliat oda ghemmt. De Technologie wead zua Diagnostik und Behondlung vo Tinnitus, Apoplexie, Epilepsie, Parkinson-Kronkheit und fia psychiatirische Sterunga (wia Depression und Schizophrenie) eingsetzt. Moast wead de transkranielle Magnetstimulation wiedahoit ogwendet, ma redt nacha vo "repetitiva transkraniella Magnetstimulation (rTMS). Bei da repetitiven transkraniellen Magnetstimulation (rTMS) wean duach stoake magnetische Wejn s Hian und seine Neavnzejn woiweis zua Aktivität und Entsponnung stimuliat. Ois ned-invasive, medikamentnfreie Therapie zäid de TMS zu de Natuaheimethodn. Beleg[VE | Weakln] Hochspringen ↑ Was ist rTMS? Im Netz[VE | Weakln]

Neural network An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in a brain. Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one neuron to the input of another. For example, a neural network for handwriting recognition is defined by a set of input neurons which may be activated by the pixels of an input image. Like other machine learning methods - systems that learn from data - neural networks have been used to solve a wide variety of tasks that are hard to solve using ordinary rule-based programming, including computer vision and speech recognition. Background[edit] There is no single formal definition of what an artificial neural network is. consist of sets of adaptive weights, i.e. numerical parameters that are tuned by a learning algorithm, andare capable of approximating non-linear functions of their inputs. History[edit] Farley and Wesley A. Recent improvements[edit] Models[edit] and .

Computational neuroscience Computational neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system.[1] It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics. Computational neuroscience is distinct from psychological connectionism and from learning theories of disciplines such as machine learning, neural networks, and computational learning theory in that it emphasizes descriptions of functional and biologically realistic neurons (and neural systems) and their physiology and dynamics. These models capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. History[edit] Major topics[edit] Single-neuron modeling[edit]

Neurophysics Neurophysics (or neural physics) is the branch of biophysics dealing with the nervous system including the brain and the spinal cord and the nerves. The term is a portmanteau of neurology and physics, to represent an emerging science which investigates the fundamentally physical basis for the brain, hence the basis for cognition. The field covers a wide spectrum of phenomena from molecular and cellular mechanisms to techniques to measure and influence the brain and to theories of brain function. See also[edit] Books[edit] External links[edit] Quantum mind The quantum mind or quantum consciousness hypothesis proposes that classical mechanics cannot explain consciousness, while quantum mechanical phenomena, such as quantum entanglement and superposition, may play an important part in the brain's function, and could form the basis of an explanation of consciousness. It is not one theory, but a collection of distinct ideas described below. A few theoretical physicists have argued that classical physics is intrinsically incapable of explaining the holistic aspects of consciousness, whereas quantum mechanics can. The idea that quantum theory has something to do with the workings of the mind go back to Eugene Wigner, who assumed that the wave function collapses due to its interaction with consciousness. The philosopher David Chalmers has argued against quantum consciousness. Description of main quantum mind approaches[edit] David Bohm[edit] In trying to describe the nature of consciousness, Bohm discusses the experience of listening to music.

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