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Intelligence amplification

Intelligence amplification
Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence) refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence. The idea was first proposed in the 1950s and 1960s by cybernetics and early computer pioneers. IA is sometimes contrasted with AI (Artificial Intelligence), that is, the project of building a human-like intelligence in the form of an autonomous technological system such as a computer or robot. AI has encountered many fundamental obstacles, practical as well as theoretical, which for IA seem moot, as it needs technology merely as an extra support for an autonomous intelligence that has already proven to function. Major contributions[edit] William Ross Ashby: Intelligence Amplification[edit] .." J. "Man-Computer Symbiosis" is a key speculative paper published in 1960 by psychologist/computer scientist J.C.R. Man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems. See also[edit] Related:  Intelligence FormsBrain Augmentation

Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, or CHC theory, is a psychological theory of human cognitive abilities that takes its name from Raymond Cattell, John L. Horn and John Bissell Carroll. Recent advances in current theory and research on the structure of human cognitive abilities have resulted in a new empirically derived model commonly referred to as the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities. CHC theory of cognitive abilities is an amalgamation of two similar theories about the content and structure of human cognitive abilities. Abilities[edit] There are 9 broad stratum abilities and over 70 narrow abilities below these. A tenth ability, Gt, is considered part of the theory, but is not currently assessed by any major intellectual ability test. McGrew proposes a number of extensions to CHC theory, including Gkn, Domain-specific knowledge, Gp, Psychomotor ability, and Gps, Psychomotor speed. Model tests[edit] See also[edit] Fluid and crystallized intelligence for Gf-Gc theory

Digi face Nootropic Nootropics (/noʊ.əˈtrɒpɨks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that improve one or more aspects of mental function, such as working memory, motivation, and attention.[1][2] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea,[3][4] derived from the Greek words νους nous, or "mind", and τρέπειν trepein meaning to bend or turn.[5] Availability and prevalence[edit] At present, there are only a few drugs which have been shown to improve some aspect of cognition in medical reviews. These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to such disorders as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and ADHD. Academic use[edit] Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Drugs[edit]

Human enhancement An electrically powered exoskeleton suit in development as of 2010 by Tsukuba University of Japan. Human enhancement is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means. It is the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range." [1][2][3] Technologies[edit] Existing technologies[edit] Emerging technologies[edit] Speculative technologies[edit] Ethics[edit] While in some circles the expression "human enhancement" is roughly synonymous with human genetic engineering,[6][7] it is used most often to refer to the general application of the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC) to improve human performance.[5] Inequality and social disruption[edit] Effects on identity[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Three stratum theory Presented by John Carroll 1993 in "Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies",[1][2] the hierarchical Three-Stratum Theory of cognitive abilities is based on a factor analytic study of correlation of individual differences variables from measures including psychological tests, school marks, and competence ratings. These factor analyses suggested three layers or strata, with each layer accounting for the variation in correlations among elements at the next lower level. Carroll proposes a taxonomic dimension in the distinction between level factors and speed factors. The tasks that contribute to the identification of level factors can be sorted by difficulty and individuals differentiated by whether they have acquired the skill to perform the tasks. Tasks that contribute to speed factors are distinguished by the relative speed with which individuals can complete them. References[edit] Jump up ^ J. See also[edit]

Recommender system Recommender systems or recommendation systems (sometimes replacing "system" with a synonym such as platform or engine) are a subclass of information filtering system that seek to predict the 'rating' or 'preference' that user would give to an item.[1][2] Recommender systems have become extremely common in recent years, and are applied in a variety of applications. The most popular ones are probably movies, music, news, books, research articles, search queries, social tags, and products in general. However, there are also recommender systems for experts, jokes, restaurants, financial services, life insurance, persons (online dating), and twitter followers .[3] Overview[edit] The differences between collaborative and content-based filtering can be demonstrated by comparing two popular music recommender systems - Last.fm and Pandora Radio. Each type of system has its own strengths and weaknesses. Recommender system is an active research area in the data mining and machine learning areas.

Cyberware Cyberware is a relatively new and unknown field (a proto-science, or more adequately a “proto-technology”). In science fiction circles, however, it is commonly known to mean the hardware or machine parts implanted in the human body and acting as an interface between the central nervous system and the computers or machinery connected to it. More formally: Cyberware is technology that attempts to create a working interface between machines/computers and the human nervous system, including (but not limited to) the brain. Examples of potential cyberware cover a wide range, but current research tends to approach the field from one of two different angles: Interfaces or Prosthetics. Interfaces ("Headware")[edit] Large university laboratories conduct most of the experiments done in the area of direct neural interfaces. The more intense research, concerning full in-brain interfaces, is being studied, but is in its infancy. Prosthetics ("Bodyware")[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Accelerating Future » Future Economy? Danila Medvedev , founder of the Russian Transhumanist Association and pioneer of cryonics in Russia, thinks that our future economy will look like the following: He writes: 1. Development of virtual reality means that “white-collar” work will be moved to virtual workplaces and much of service and operator work will be done using telepresence. 2. Will this come true? But I’m not sure why AI, robotics, and nanotech are mutually exclusive…

Convergent and divergent production Convergent and divergent production are the two types of human response to a set problem that were identified by J.P. Guilford (1967). Guilford observed that most individuals display a preference for either convergent or divergent thinking. Others observe that most people prefer a convergent closure. Divergent thinking[edit] According to J.P. There is a movement in education that maintains divergent thinking might create more resourceful students. Divergent production is the creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem. Critic of the analytic/dialectic approach[edit] While the observations made in psychology can be used to analyze the thinking of humans, such categories may also lead to oversimplifications and dialectic thinking. The systematic use of convergent thinking may well lead to what is known as Group think—thus one should probably combine systematic use with critical thinking. References[edit] Guilford, J. (1967). See also[edit]

Automated online assistant Automated online assistants have the ability to provide customer service during 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, and may, at least, be a complement to customer service by humans.[2] One report estimated that an automated online assistant produced a 30% decrease in the work-load for a human-provided call centre.[3] Usage[edit] Large companies such as Lloyds Banking Group and Royal Bank of Scotland are now using automated online assistants instead of call centres with humans to provide a first point of contact.[citation needed]Also, IKEA has an automated online assistant in their help center.[4] Automated online assistants can also be implemented via Twitter, or Windows Live Messenger, such as, for example, Robocoke for Coca Cola Hungary. Popular online portals like eBay and PayPal are also using multilingual virtual agents to offer online support to their customers. Components[edit] Dialog system[edit] Avatar[edit] Other components[edit] See also[edit] Notes and references[edit]

Exocortex An exocortex is a theoretical artificial external information processing system that would augment a brain's biological high-level cognitive processes. An individual's exocortex would be composed of external memory modules, processors, IO devices and software systems that would interact with, and augment, a person's biological brain. Typically this interaction is described as being conducted through a direct brain-computer interface, making these extensions functionally part of the individual's mind. Individuals with significant exocortices could be classified as cyborgs or transhumans. Living Digital provided one description of the concept: While [the traditional concept of] a cyborg has included artificial mechanical limbs, embedded chips and devices, another interesting concept is the exocortex, which is a brain-computer interface. Etymology[edit] Specific applications[edit] In 1981 Steve Mann designed and built the first general purpose wearable computer. Intellectual background[edit]

Cryonics: Alcor Life Extension Foundation Triarchic theory of intelligence Different components of information processing[edit] Schematic illustrating one trial of each stimulus pool in the Sternberg task: letter, word, object, spatial, grating. Sternberg associated the workings of the mind with a series of components. These components he labeled the metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components (Sternberg, 1985). The metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. Sternberg’s next set of components, performance components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition components, are used in obtaining new information. Whereas Sternberg explains that the basic information processing components underlying the three parts of his triarchic theory are the same, different contexts and different tasks require different kind of intelligence (Sternberg, 2001). See also[edit]

Collective intelligence Types of collective intelligence Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. History[edit] Dimensions[edit] Howard Bloom has discussed mass behavior—collective behavior from the level of quarks to the level of bacterial, plant, animal, and human societies. Openness Peering Sharing Acting Globally Examples[edit] Mathematical techniques[edit]

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