background preloader

Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (27 October[1] 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. Amongst humanists, he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists".[2] Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote On Free Will,[3] The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Early life[edit] Ordination and monastic experience[edit] Education and scholarship[edit] Related:  Wikipedia A

Qing dynasty The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Northeastern China, historically known as Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhachi, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Jurchen clans into "Banners," military-social units and forming a Manchu people. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of southern Manchuria and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital Beijing. The government then initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Name[edit] The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of "Da Qing" or "Dai Ching", may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word that means "warrior". History[edit] Formation of the Manchu state[edit] Furthermore, the Mongols proved a useful ally in the war, lending the Jurchens their expertise as cavalry archers. Qing era brush container

Pemulwuy Pemulwuy (aka Pimbloy, Pemulvoy, Pemulwoy, Pemulwye,) (c1750 - 2 June 1802) was an Aboriginal Australian man born around 1750 in the area of Botany Bay in New South Wales. He is noted for his resistance to the European settlement of Australia which began with the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788.[1] He is believed to have been a member of the Bidjigal (Bediagal) clan of the Eora people. Early life[edit] Pemulwuy was a member of the Bidjigal[2] people, who were the original inhabitants of Prospect Creek, a tributory of the upper George's River. He was related to the Toonga-gal (Toongabbie) and Burramatta-gal (Parramatta) clans of the Woodland Dharug people (J.L.Kohen, The Darug and their Neighbours, Darug Link, 1993) with whom much of his later Resistance was undertaken. The George's River is the source of [[Botany Bay], with whom the British colonists associated him.[3] Pemulwuy was born with a turned eye. Pemulwuy's War[edit] Origin of Conflict: Spearing of McIntyre[edit] Escape[edit]

Garuda In Hinduism[edit] Garuda is known as the eternal sworn enemy of the Nāga serpent race and known for feeding exclusively on snakes, such behavior may have referred to the actual Short-toed Eagle of India. The image of Garuda is often used as the charm or amulet to protect the bearer from snake attack and its poison, since the king of birds is an implacable enemy and "devourer of serpent". His stature in Hindu religion can be gauged by the fact that an independent Upanishad, the Garudopanishad, and a Purana, the Garuda Purana, is devoted to him. In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 30), in the middle of the battlefield "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence, says - " as son of Vinata, I am in the form of Garuda, the king of the bird community (Garuda)" indicating the importance of Garuda. Garuda wears the serpent Adisesha on his left wrist and the serpent Gulika on his right wrist. Garuda Vyuha is worshiped in Tantra for Abhichara and to protect against Abhichara. India[edit]

Office of Strategic Services The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was a predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The OSS was formed in order to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for the branches of the United States Armed Forces. Origins and activities[edit] Prior to the formation of the OSS, American intelligence had been conducted on an ad-hoc basis by the various departments of the executive branch, including the State, Treasury, Navy, and War Departments. It had no overall direction, coordination, or control. President Franklin D. The Office of Strategic Services was established by a Presidential military order issued by President Roosevelt on June 13, 1942, to collect and analyze strategic information required by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to conduct special operations not assigned to other agencies. In 1942, a young physician named Christian J. Facilities[edit]

Empress Dowager Cixi Selected as an imperial concubine for the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856. With Xianfeng's death in 1861 the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor and she became Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Historians both in China and abroad have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the dynasty, while others have suggested that her opponents among the reformers succeeded in making her a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, that she stepped in to prevent disorder, that she was no more ruthless than other rulers, and that she was even an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.[1] New era[edit]

International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world."[1] Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments difficulties can borrow money. As of 2010[update], the fund had XDR476.8 billion, about US$755.7 billion at then-current exchange rates.[4] Functions[edit] The IMF's role was fundamentally altered by the floating exchange rates post-1971. Surveillance of the global economy[edit] IMF Data Dissemination Systems participants: IMF member using SDDS IMF member using GDDS Benefits[edit]

Thought experiment A thought experiment or Gedankenexperiment (from German) considers some hypothesis, theory,[1] or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Given the structure of the experiment, it may or may not be possible to actually perform it, and if it can be performed, there need be no intention of any kind to actually perform the experiment in question. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent)" (Yeates, 2004, p. 150). Overview[edit] Salviati. Although the extract does not convey the elegance and power of the 'demonstration' terribly well, it is clear that it is a 'thought' experiment, rather than a practical one. Variety[edit] Uses[edit]

Progressive Judaism Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term used by the strands of Liberal, Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism which are affiliated with the World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ). They embrace pluralism, modernity, equality and social justice as core values and believe that such values are consistent with a committed Jewish life.[1] The movement includes more than 1.7 million members spread across 42 countries.[2] The WUPJ was formed 1926 when leading Liberal and Reform in North America and Europe met in England to discuss common interests. At the urging of Lily Montagu, they decided to unite and form the WUPJ. Local movements retained their prior organizational structure and identity but now had a new umbrella organization which they used to support one another and coordinate efforts to support congregations worldwide. Israel[edit] The way Progressive Judaism in Israel is practiced is in some ways more traditional than practice in the Diaspora. Continental Europe[edit] See also[edit]

Schrödinger's cat Schrödinger's cat: a cat, a flask of poison, and a radioactive source are placed in a sealed box. If an internal monitor detects radioactivity (i.e. a single atom decaying), the flask is shattered, releasing the poison that kills the cat. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics implies that after a while, the cat is simultaneously alive and dead. Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935.[1] It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects. Origin and motivation[edit] Real-size cat figure in the garden of Huttenstrasse 9, Zurich, where Erwin Schrödinger lived 1921 – 1926. The thought experiment[edit] Schrödinger wrote:[1][10] One can even set up quite ridiculous cases. You are the only contemporary physicist, besides Laue, who sees that one cannot get around the assumption of reality, if only one is honest.

Genocide Raphael Lemkin, in his work Axis Rule in Occupied Europe (1944), coined the term "genocide" by combining Greek genos (γένος; race, people) and Latin cīdere (to kill).[5] Lemkin defined genocide as follows: "Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups." Genocide as a crime[edit] International law[edit] Intent to destroy[edit] In part[edit]

Related: