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Web Ontology Language

The OWL family contains many species, serializations, syntaxes and specifications with similar names. OWL and OWL2 are used to refer to the 2004 and 2009 specifications, respectively. Full species names will be used, including specification version (for example, OWL2 EL). When referring more generally, OWL Family will be used. History[edit] Early ontology languages[edit] Ontology languages for the web[edit] In 2000 in the United States, DARPA started development of DAML led by James Hendler.[12] In March 2001, the Joint EU/US Committee on Agent Markup Languages decided that DAML should be merged with OIL.[12] The EU/US ad hoc Joint Working Group on Agent Markup Languages was convened to develop DAML+OIL as a web ontology language. OWL started as a research-based[14] revision of DAML+OIL aimed at the semantic web. Semantic web standards[edit] The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries.

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SPARQL SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a semantic query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format.[2][3] It was made a standard by the RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium, and is recognized as one of the key technologies of the semantic web. On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation,[4][5] and SPARQL 1.1 in March, 2013.[6] SPARQL allows for a query to consist of triple patterns, conjunctions, disjunctions, and optional patterns.[7] Implementations for multiple programming languages exist.[8] "SPARQL will make a huge difference" making the web machine-readable according to Sir Tim Berners-Lee in a May 2006 interview.[9] Advantages[edit] The example below demonstrates a simple query that leverages the ontology definition "foaf", often called the "friend-of-a-friend" ontology.

Ralph Debusmann - Extensible Dependency Grammar (XDG) Extensible Dependency Grammar (XDG) is a general framework for dependency grammar, with multiple levels of linguistic representations called dimensions, e.g. grammatical function, word order, predicate-argument structure, scope structure, information structure and prosodic structure. It is articulated around a graph description language for multi-dimensional attributed labeled graphs. An XDG grammar is a constraint that describes the valid linguistic signs as n-dimensional attributed labeled graphs, i.e. n-tuples of graphs sharing the same set of attributed nodes, but having different sets of labeled edges. All aspects of these signs are stipulated explicitly by principles: the class of models for each dimension, additional properties that they must satisfy, how one dimension must relate to another, and even lexicalization.

OWL Web Ontology Language Reference W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004 New Version Available: OWL 2 (Document Status Update, 12 November 2009) The OWL Working Group has produced a W3C Recommendation for a new version of OWL which adds features to this 2004 version, while remaining compatible. Please see OWL 2 Document Overview for an introduction to OWL 2 and a guide to the OWL 2 document set. This version: Jerry’s Brain app: background and support page Thank you for buying and installing the Jerry’s Brain app (if you haven’t yet but would like to, click here). This page should explain what you’ve gotten into and where to turn with questions or comments. I did not create TheBrain app, nor am I in charge of the servers or the App Store side. For technical issues (if the app won’t load, server is down, refresh is sluggish) please email For questions of content and process, you’re in the right place. First, some important things you should know:

GAJIT This page is for a mini-project I undertook when I had a spare moment or two to port the C++ based genetic algorithm library GAGS to Java. GAJIT (Genetic Algorithm Java Implementation Toolkit) is a rather contrived name for a simple set of classes that I wrote to experiment with genetic algorithms. I became interested in genetic algorithms and wanted to experiment with them. I first downloaded J. OpenLink Virtuoso Universal Server: Documentation OpenLink Virtuoso Universal Server: Documentation Contents | Prev | Next Keyword Search: Book Home Tool For Thought « Battle Of The Sexes, cont. | Main | DevonThink Continued » January 29, 2005 Tool For Thought This week's edition of the Times Book Review features an essay that I wrote about the research system I've used for the past few years: a tool for exploring the couple thousand notes and quotations that I've assembled over the past decade -- along with the text of finished essays and books.

Speech Recognition By Java - Simplified | Osama Oransa's Blog Speech recognition is one of the challenging areas in computer science, a lot of pattern recognition methodology tried to resolve a good way and higher percentage of recognition. One of the best ways to be use is Hidden Markov Model : "The process of speech recognition is to find the best possible sequence of words (or units) that will fit the given input speech. It is a search problem, and in the case of HMM-based recognizers, a graph search problem. The graph represents all possible sequences of phonemes in the entire language of the task under consideration. The graph is typically composed of the HMMs of sound units concatenated in a guided manner, as specified by the grammar of the task."

Semantic Web Architecture - Introduction to ontologies and semantic web - tutorial The architecture of semantic web is illustrated in the figure below. The first layer, URI and Unicode, follows the important features of the existing WWW. Unicode is a standard of encoding international character sets and it allows that all human languages can be used (written and read) on the web using one standardized form. Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of a standardized form that allows to uniquely identify resources (e.g., documents). Puppy Training Articles I wrote this article to help new puppy owners wade through the sea of information on our web site and frankly, on the internet. I have listed the specific products I feel new puppy owners should have. These are products we use in our home when we raise a puppy (which we are doing right now for our pup, Favor who is 6 months old). When people bring a new puppy home they are often confronted by problems that were never expected.