In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, several ideologies and movements, such as the cyberdelic counterculture, the Californian Ideology, transhumanism, and singularitarianism, have emerged promoting a form of techno-utopia as a reachable goal. Cultural critic Imre Szeman argues technological utopianism is an irrational social narrative because there is no evidence to support it. He concludes that what it shows is the extent to which modern societies place a lot of faith in narratives of progress and technology overcoming things, despite all evidence to the contrary. History Technological utopianism from the 19th to mid-20th centuries Karl Marx believed that science and democracy were the right and left hands of what he called the move from the realm of necessity to the realm of freedom. Some technological utopians promoted eugenics. H.G. The horrors of the 20th century - communist and fascist dictatorships, world wars - caused many to abandon optimism.
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