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Courage is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. Physical courage is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal or discouragement. In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such as Aristotle, Aquinas and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More recently, courage has been explored by the discipline of psychology. Theories of courage[edit] Western antiquity and the Middle Ages[edit] Ancient Greece[edit] An early Greek philosopher, Plato (c. 428 BCE – c. 348 BCE),[1] set the groundwork for how courage would be viewed to future philosophers. Ancient Rome[edit] Medieval philosophy[edit] According to Thomas Aquinas,[10] Christianity[edit] Modernity[edit] Related:  Common connotations of RED

Error The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Human behavior[edit] One reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows: An 'error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. Oral and written language[edit] An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar, syntax, pronunciation and punctuation are sometimes referred to as errors. Gaffe [edit] Medicine[edit]

Republican Party (United States) History Founding and 19th century The first official party convention was held on July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan. The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. Early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan "free labor, free land, free men", which had been coined by Salmon P. The GOP supported business generally, hard money (i.e., the gold standard), high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, and (after 1893) the annexation of Hawaii. Nevertheless, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. After the two terms of Democrat Grover Cleveland, the election of William McKinley in 1896 is widely seen as a resurgence of Republican dominance and is sometimes cited as a realigning election. 20th century Warren G. The New Deal coalition of Democrat Franklin D.

Volcano A 2007 eruptive column at Mount Etna producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador, a close up aerial view of the nested summit calderas and craters, along with the crater lake as seen from a United States Air Force C-130 Hercules flying above El Salvador. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Etymology Plate tectonics Divergent plate boundaries "Hotspots"

Christmas While the birth year of Jesus is estimated among modern historians to have been between 7 and 2 BC, the exact month and day of his birth are unknown.[18][19] His birth is mentioned in two of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25,[20] a date later adopted in the East,[21][22] although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to January in the modern-day Gregorian calendar. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to have been conceived,[23] or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse[a] identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness".[23][24][25][26][27] Etymology Other names History Dies Natalis Solis Invicti

Stop sign A STOP sign A stop sign is a traffic sign to notify drivers that they must stop before proceeding.[1] Vienna Convention[edit] The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals allows for two types of stop sign, as well as three acceptable variants. Acceptable variant of B2bAcceptable variant of B2bAcceptable variant of B2b Specifications[edit] The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals proposed the standard stop sign diameters of 600, 900 or 1200 mm. The stop instruction is specified with either an English STOP or local language legend in the United Nations Convention on Road Signs and Signals. Placement and standardization[edit] Stop signs are used globally. In North America[edit] Stop signs are often used in North America to control conflicting traffic movements at intersections which are not busy enough to justify the installation of a traffic signal or roundabout. Researchers also found that safety of pedestrians (especially small children) may sometimes be actually decreased.

Failure "Fail" redirects here. For the Irish political party, see Fianna Fáil. In science Criteria The criteria for failure are heavily dependent on context of use, and may be relative to a particular observer or belief system. It may also be difficult or impossible to ascertain whether a situation meets criteria for failure or success due to ambiguous or ill-defined definition of those criteria. Types Failure can be differentially perceived from the viewpoints of the evaluators. Failure to anticipateFailure to perceiveFailure to carry out a task Loser is a derogatory term for a person who is (according to the standards of the observer) generally unsuccessful or undesirable. Commercial failures Most of the items listed below had high expectations, significant financial investments, and/or widespread publicity, but fell far short of success. Sometimes, "commercial failures" can receive a cult following. Internet memes See also References Further reading External links

Drug intolerance Drug intolerance or drug sensitivity is a lower threshold to the normal pharmacologic action of a drug. It is not to be confused with drug allergy. Drug intolerance is uncommon and idiopathic, thus extremely difficult to predict except in persons with a prior history or a family history of intolerance to that specific drug. Some drug intolerances are known to result from genetic variants of drug metabolism. Examples[edit] Tinnitus after a normal dose of aspirinLiver failure (possibly also kidney failure) after a normal dose of acetaminophen Fatal poisoning can be caused to a breastfed newborn baby due to normal use of codeine by the mother. Fatal poisoning in a breastfed newborn baby due to normal use of codeine by the mother.[1] Analgesic intolerance[edit] Intolerance to analgesics, particularly NSAIDs, is relatively common. See also[edit] References[edit]

Blood Human blood fractioned by centrifugation. Plasma (upper layer), buffy coat (middle, white colored layer) and erytrocite layer (bottom) can be seen. Blood circulation: Red = oxygenated Blue = deoxygenated Human blood magnified 600 times Frog blood magnified 600 times Fish blood magnified 600 times In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated. Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (also spelled haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word αἷμα (haima) for "blood". Functions Haemoglobin, a globular protein green = haem groups red & blue = protein subunits Heme Blood performs many important functions within the body including: Constituents of human blood Illustration depicting formed elements of blood. Two tubes of EDTA-anticoagulated blood. Cells One microliter of blood contains: Plasma Physiology

One-way traffic One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in one direction. One-way streets typically result in higher traffic flow as drivers don't have to deal with on-coming traffic nor turns through on-coming traffic. Signage[edit] General signs[edit] The contemporary Australian one way sign is vertically oriented. Signs are posted showing which direction the vehicles can move in: commonly an upward arrow, or on a T junction where the main road is one-way, an arrow to the left or right. In addition to one-way streets, one-way traffic is also seen on highway entrance and exit ramps. No entry signs[edit] "No entry" signs are often placed at the exit ends of one-way streets The abstract 'No Entry' sign was officially adopted to standardization at the League of Nations convention in Geneva in 1931. Location of one-way streets[edit] Special Rules[edit]

Death In society, the nature of death and humanity's awareness of its own mortality has for millennia been a concern of the world's religious traditions and of philosophical inquiry. This includes belief in resurrection (associated with Abrahamic religions), reincarnation or rebirth (associated with Dharmic religions), or that consciousness permanently ceases to exist, known as eternal oblivion (often associated with atheism).[4] Commemoration ceremonies after death may include various mourning or funeral practices. The physical remains of a person, commonly known as a corpse or body, are usually interred whole or cremated, though among the world's cultures there are a variety of other methods of mortuary disposal. In the English language, blessings directed towards a dead person include rest in peace, or its initialism RIP. Etymology[edit] Associated terms[edit] Senescence[edit] Signs of biological death[edit] Signs of death or strong indications that an animal is no longer alive are: Legal[edit]

Risk Risk is the potential of losing something of value, weighed against the potential to gain something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well being or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action, activity and/or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. Definitions[edit] Firefighters at work Risk can be defined in a variety of ways. Basic definitions[edit] The probability of something happening multiplied by the resulting cost or benefit if it does. International Organization for Standardization[edit] The ISO 31000 (2009) / ISO Guide 73:2002 definition of risk is the 'effect of uncertainty on objectives'. Other[edit] The many inconsistent and ambiguous meanings attached to "risk" lead to widespread confusion and also mean that very different approaches to risk management are taken in different fields.[2] For example:[3] History[edit] Practice areas[edit]

Injury The knee of a patient is examined with help of radiography after an injury. An injury is damage to a biological organism caused by physical harm.[1] Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes. Classification[edit] The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by nature,part of body affected,source and secondary source, andevent or exposure. The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.[2] The World Health Organization developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). mechanism of injury,objects/substances producing injury,place of occurrence,activity when injured,the role of human intent, and additional modules. The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.[4] By ultimate cause[edit] By modality[edit]

Masculinity Masculinity is a set of qualities, characteristics or roles generally considered typical of, or appropriate to, a man. It can have degrees of comparison: "more masculine", "most masculine'". The opposite can be expressed by terms such as "unmanly" or epicene.[1] A near-synonym of masculinity is virility (from Latin vir, man). Academic study of masculinity underwent a massive expansion of interest in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with courses in the United States dealing with masculinity rising from 30 to over 300.[4] This has led to the investigation of the intersection of masculinity with other axes of social discrimination and also to the use of concepts from other fields – such as feminism's model of the social construct of gender.[5] Nature versus nurture[edit] Hegemonic masculinity[edit] Direct competition of physical skill and strength is a feature of masculinity which appears in some form in virtually every culture on Earth. Critics of masculinity[edit] Western trends[edit]

Leadership Theories[edit] Early western history[edit] The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century. Rise of alternative theories[edit] In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940;[5] Stogdill, 1948;[6] Mann, 1959[7]) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. Reemergence of trait theory[edit] New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks.[8]Significant relationships exist between leadership emergence and such individual traits as: While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks.[16] B.F.