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Courage is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. Physical courage is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal or discouragement. In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such as Aristotle, Aquinas and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More recently, courage has been explored by the discipline of psychology. Theories of courage[edit] Western antiquity and the Middle Ages[edit] Ancient Greece[edit] An early Greek philosopher, Plato (c. 428 BCE – c. 348 BCE),[1] set the groundwork for how courage would be viewed to future philosophers. Ancient Rome[edit] Medieval philosophy[edit] According to Thomas Aquinas,[10] Christianity[edit] Modernity[edit] Related:  Common connotations of RED

Error The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Human behavior[edit] One reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows: An 'error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. Oral and written language[edit] An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar, syntax, pronunciation and punctuation are sometimes referred to as errors. Gaffe [edit] Medicine[edit]

Hugo (2011) Courage Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le courage est un trait de caractère qui permet de surmonter la peur pour faire face à un danger. Le terme peut aussi être employé pour exprimer l'endurance, notamment à l'égard de la douleur. Le courage est à distinguer d'autres notions à connotations plus péjoratives, comme l'audace ou la témérité, pour lesquelles le moteur de l'action n'est pas la peur, mais le désir ou l'orgueil. Le courage authentique requiert l'existence de la peur, ainsi que le surpassement de celle-ci dans l'action. Lorsque le danger est confronté sans peur, on parle plutôt d'« assurance » ou, de façon plus péjorative, d'inconscience, notamment lorsque le danger est manifestement sous-estimé. Conception platonicienne du courage[modifier | modifier le code] Conception orientale du courage[modifier | modifier le code] Le courage, s’il n’était pas mis au service de la justice, était à peine digne d'être considéré comme une vertu. Références[modifier | modifier le code]

Republican Party (United States) History Founding and 19th century The first official party convention was held on July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan. The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. Early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan "free labor, free land, free men", which had been coined by Salmon P. The GOP supported business generally, hard money (i.e., the gold standard), high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, and (after 1893) the annexation of Hawaii. Nevertheless, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. After the two terms of Democrat Grover Cleveland, the election of William McKinley in 1896 is widely seen as a resurgence of Republican dominance and is sometimes cited as a realigning election. 20th century Warren G. The New Deal coalition of Democrat Franklin D.

George Lucas George Walton Lucas (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and entrepreneur. He founded Lucasfilm and led the company as chairman and chief executive before selling it to The Walt Disney Company on October 30, 2012.[3] He is best known as the creator of the space opera franchise Star Wars and the archaeologist adventurer character Indiana Jones. Lucas is one of the American film industry's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards. Early life and education George Lucas was born in Modesto, California, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas (née Bomberger; 1913–1989) and George Walton Lucas, Sr. (1913–1991), who owned a stationery store.[4][5] After graduating with a bachelor of fine arts in film in 1967, he tried joining the United States Air Force as an officer, but he was immediately turned down because of his numerous speeding tickets. Film career Lucas at the Venice Film Festival in 2009.

Wisdom Definitions[edit] Charles Haddon Spurgeon defined wisdom as "the right use of knowledge".[2] Robert I. Sutton and Andrew Hargadon defined the "attitude of wisdom" as "acting with knowledge while doubting what one knows".[3] Philosophical perspectives[edit] The ancient Romans also valued wisdom. Wisdom is also important within Christianity. Educational perspectives[edit] Truth and Wisdom assist History in writing by Jacob de Wit, 1754 Public schools in the US have an approach to character education. Nicholas Maxwell, a contemporary philosopher in the United Kingdom, advocates that academia ought to alter its focus from the acquisition of knowledge to seeking and promoting wisdom, which he defines as the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others.[10] He teaches that new knowledge and technological know-how increase our power to act which, without wisdom, may cause human suffering and death as well as human benefit. Psychological perspectives[edit] Dr. Sapience[edit]

Volcano A 2007 eruptive column at Mount Etna producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador, a close up aerial view of the nested summit calderas and craters, along with the crater lake as seen from a United States Air Force C-130 Hercules flying above El Salvador. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Etymology Plate tectonics Divergent plate boundaries "Hotspots"

Christopher Nolan Christopher Jonathan James Nolan (/ˈnoʊlən/; born 30 July 1970)[1] is an British-American film director, screenwriter, and producer. He has created several of the most critically and commercially successful films of the early 21st century. His nine films have grossed over $4.2 billion worldwide and garnered a total of 26 Oscar nominations and seven awards. Early life[edit] Nolan was born in London. Nolan was educated at Haileybury and Imperial Service College, an independent school in Hertford Heath, Hertfordshire, and later read English literature at University College London (UCL). During his college years, Nolan made two short films. Career[edit] 1990s[edit] Early work and Following[edit] 2000s[edit] Memento and Insomnia[edit] —Nolan on the jump from his first film to his second.[19] Batman Begins, The Prestige and The Dark Knight[edit]

Christmas While the birth year of Jesus is estimated among modern historians to have been between 7 and 2 BC, the exact month and day of his birth are unknown.[18][19] His birth is mentioned in two of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25,[20] a date later adopted in the East,[21][22] although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to January in the modern-day Gregorian calendar. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to have been conceived,[23] or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse[a] identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness".[23][24][25][26][27] Etymology Other names History Dies Natalis Solis Invicti

Pi (1998 Stop sign A STOP sign A stop sign is a traffic sign to notify drivers that they must stop before proceeding.[1] Vienna Convention[edit] The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals allows for two types of stop sign, as well as three acceptable variants. Acceptable variant of B2bAcceptable variant of B2bAcceptable variant of B2b Specifications[edit] The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals proposed the standard stop sign diameters of 600, 900 or 1200 mm. The stop instruction is specified with either an English STOP or local language legend in the United Nations Convention on Road Signs and Signals. Placement and standardization[edit] Stop signs are used globally. In North America[edit] Stop signs are often used in North America to control conflicting traffic movements at intersections which are not busy enough to justify the installation of a traffic signal or roundabout. Researchers also found that safety of pedestrians (especially small children) may sometimes be actually decreased.

Ghost in the Shell (1995 Failure "Fail" redirects here. For the Irish political party, see Fianna Fáil. In science Criteria The criteria for failure are heavily dependent on context of use, and may be relative to a particular observer or belief system. It may also be difficult or impossible to ascertain whether a situation meets criteria for failure or success due to ambiguous or ill-defined definition of those criteria. Types Failure can be differentially perceived from the viewpoints of the evaluators. Failure to anticipateFailure to perceiveFailure to carry out a task Loser is a derogatory term for a person who is (according to the standards of the observer) generally unsuccessful or undesirable. Commercial failures Most of the items listed below had high expectations, significant financial investments, and/or widespread publicity, but fell far short of success. Sometimes, "commercial failures" can receive a cult following. Internet memes See also References Further reading External links

A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001