Composition and the Elements of Visual Design Proportion - Golden Ratio and Rule of Thirds Proportion refers the size relationship of visual elements to each other and to the whole picture. One of the reasons proportion is often considered important in composition is that viewers respond to it emotionally. Proportion in art has been examined for hundreds of years, long before photography was invented. One proportion that is often cited as occurring frequently in design is the Golden mean or Golden ratio. Many photographers and artists are aware of the rule of thirds, where a picture is divided into three sections vertically and horizontally and lines and points of intersection represent places to position important visual elements. On analyzing some of my favorite photographs by laying down grids (thirds or golden ratio in Adobe Photoshop) I find that some of my images do indeed seem to correspond to the rule of thirds and to a lesser extent the golden ratio, however many do not.
picturinghistory.gc.cuny.edu/item.php?item_id=180 John Gast, American Progress, 1872 Martha A. Sandweiss, Amherst College Historian Martha A. John Gast, American Progress, 1872. John Gast, a Brooklyn based painter and lithographer, painted this picture in 1872 on commission for George Crofutt, the publisher of a popular series of western travel guides. I use this image early on in my western history classes for several reasons. As students begin to describe what they see, they quickly realize that they’re looking at a kind of historical encyclopedia of transportation technologies. Then, of course, there is that “beautiful and charming female,” as Crofutt described her, whose diaphanous gown somehow remains attached to her body without the aid of velcro or safety pins. The ideas embodied in this painting not only suggest the broad sources for Turner’s essay about the importance of the frontier in American life, they suggest that his essay reached an audience for whom these ideas were already familiar.
Education Guided tours: Tuesday–Friday, 10:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m. Unguided tours: Tuesday–Friday, noon–5:00 p.m. Philadelphia Museum of Art Preschool program: $80 per class K–12 programs: $5 per student for Philadelphia public*, private, and parochial schools; $7 per student for all other schools Rodin Museum Guided tours: same as rates for Philadelphia Museum of ArtUnguided tours: $5 per person Museum memberships do not apply to school programs admissions. *Thanks to a grant, the Museum is able to offer free admission to a limited number of Philadelphia public school classes. No students may tour the Museum unchaperoned. All Museum programs are available to all students. Brown-bag lunch facilities are available for K–12. School groups are permitted to shop in the main Museum Store. One free-admission educator's pass will be sent to teachers with a confirmed booking. Buses will be directed by Security to the appropriate parking space upon arrival.
Similarity and Proximity SIMILARITY/PROXIMITY COLLAGE Make a collage that consists of a simple phrase of four or more words and a picture that illustrates the phrase. The words will be made using all different sizes, colors and shapes of letters cut from magazines. The letters will be chosen for maximum variety and no duplicate styles are allowed unless there are more than twenty letters in the phrase. There will be at least one word using each of the four proximity techniques to organize all of that word's letters into the word. All of the letters must be easy to see and the phrase must be easy to read. HOW TO START Find a phrase that you are interested in using that can be illustrated with a picture you can find (or make). Start collecting letters. Remember that the color of paper behind the letter will often show so make the shapes around the letters look like what you want to see. As you are looking for letters, look for an illustration to use. When you have all the parts start laying out the composition.
Ashcan School The Ashcan School, also called the Ash Can School, was an artistic movement in the United States during the early twentieth century that is best known for works portraying scenes of daily life in New York, often in the city's poorer neighborhoods. The most famous artists working in this style included Robert Henri (1865–1929), George Luks (1867–1933), William Glackens (1870–1938), John Sloan (1871–1951), and Everett Shinn (1876–1953), some of whom had met studying together under the renowned realist Thomas Anshutz at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and others of whom met in the newspaper offices of Philadelphia where they worked as illustrators. Origin and development Ashcan School artists and friends at John French Sloan's Philadelphia Studio, 1898 The Ashcan School was not an organized movement. The artists who worked in this style did not issue manifestos or even see themselves as a unified group with identical intentions or career goals. See also Notes
State Winners - Doodle 4 Google – Google A Jolly Trip to Old Victorian Age Alexa B , North Pole, AK, Grade 10 If I could travel in time, I'd visit back to Victorian Age. My doodle shows some of the Victorian structures for which I'd admire, the bike is one of two ways I'd travel through England besides train, and Queen Victoria, whom I'd like to see. Prehistoric Times Wilfredo R , Wilmington, DE, Grade 11 This conveys a time of prehistoric substance before the familiar existence of modern day convenience and even human life. The Spiritual People Walker P , Miami, FL, Grade 12 If I could travel in time, I would visit the time period before manifest destiny when the Native Americans thrived. Stone Age Cave Painting Tucker B , Baldwin City, KS, Grade 12 If I could tavel in time, I'd visit the stone age, which is why I drew the Google logo as a cave painting that includes a deer, the sun, a mammoth, spear and a rattlesnake. Bonjour from the World's Fair Emily D , Liberty, MO, Grade 11 A World of Adventure Cynthia C , Edison, NJ, Grade 11
Balance Symmetry SYMMETRICAL COMPOSITION Make a symmetrically balanced collage using only circles, triangles and/or rectangles. The shapes can overlap or be trimmed to make new shapes. Up to four colors may be used. The composition must have a vertical axis of symmetry. Biaxial symmetry may be used. Start with thumbnail sketches. Decide what colors you will use. Try to make all of the colors operate as figure in the design. Filling in the thumbnail sketches can make it easier to see color and value relationships. Notes on the Ethnic Image in Ashcan School Paintings During the first decades of the twentieth century, Robert Henri and his circle of Ashcan realists became known for their crusading efforts to reconnect art and life. Eschewing allegorical themes, depictions of upper-class leisure, society portraiture, and the aesthetic movement, they instead depicted daily life in the urban metropolis- street culture, popular entertainments, new immigrants, and the working class. Works such as George Luks’s Allen Street (1905; Hunter Museum of American Art), George Bellows’s Forty-Two Kids (1907; Corcoran Gallery of Art), John Sloan’s Hairdresser’s Window (1907; Wadsworth Atheneum), and Henri’s portrait “types” such as Willie Gee (1904; Newark Museum) have come to characterize the Ashcan school’s depictions of “real life.” By focusing on the immigrants’ strange costumes and exotic ways, by seeing them as types and not individuals, these works often perpetuated existing stereotypes and popular misconceptions about immigrants.
Art Elements: Composition The Composition Composition is an intuitive act: how artists work with their judgment, make associations, and determine how to direct the observer’s eye. It’s in the “compositional” stage that they determine how the lines will lead to important areas, whether the shapes will be large enough to hold the viewer’s attention, and how the colors will lead the eye off to another part of the work. Just as artists work with their intuition to compose a work of art, so we the viewers can “intuit” their methods. Rhythm Rhythm helps lead the eye through a work of art. Move your mouse over the image above. To simplify rhythm and more easily understand it, let’s consider two basic types of rhythm—“dynamic” or “controlled.” Scroll over the image above to see what is repeated to create the rhythm of this piece. If spaces between shapes are even, with objects on vertical and/or horizontal lines, and colors are analogous, a more “controlled” pattern of rhythm emerges.
Picturing the Great Migration In 1993, seven years before his death, at the age of eighty-two, Jacob Lawrence recast the title and most of the captions of a stunning suite of sixty small paintings that he had made in 1941. The pictures, in milk-based casein tempera on hardboard, detailed the exodus that began during the First World War of African-Americans from the rural South to the urban North. The original title, “The Migration of the Negro,” became “The Migration Series.” Lawrence was working in a studio with neither heat nor running water in Harlem when he created “Migration” in a rush of inspiration, following months of painstaking research. After Lawrence’s first solo show, at the Harlem Y.M.C.A., in 1938, he was accepted into the Federal Arts Project of the Works Progress Administration. Fortune reproduced, in color, twenty-six of the “Migration” panels. The census of 1910 found ninety-two thousand African-Americans in New York and forty-two thousand in Chicago. Two impressions stand out.
Looking at Great Art Looking at Great Art Artworks contain messages artists send us. Why? Because art is a language. Do you know what artworks are saying? When you begin to see how artists use the basic Elements you’ll look at art with a discerning eye. Take a close look Almost everyone is familiar with Leonardo da Vinci’s painting entitled Mona Lisa. Click here to see how the Elements can be applied to this painting, thereby helping you develop a more “discerning eye” for art. Click here to go to the next page. Looking at Great Art Practice Looking at Great Art Practice Line It’s easy to see that Leonardo placed Mona Lisa in a very vertical pose. Color Leonardo uses color to create illusions of space in this painting. Value It’s easy to find all three methods of handling values (lights and darks) in this painting. Leonardo uses transitional value changes to show the smooth, rounded details of the woman’s delicate, soft hands. Texture Even in this small section of the painting above Mona Lisa’s right shoulder, it’s clear how Leonardo used a wide variety of textures to make the artwork even more appealing by stimulating our sense of touch. Space There are many illusionistic techniques used here to fool our eyes into thinking that Mona Lisa is seated before a vast landscape. Ladder perspective is used to keep leading our eyes into the distance. Leonardo also creates space with atmospheric perspective. Shape Leonardo used shapes to create a typical High Renaissance composition—he organized his objects along geometric principles.