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Dwarf planet

Dwarf planet
Pluto in approximate true colour based on Hubble Space Telescope albedo data A dwarf planet is an object the size of a planet (a planetary-mass object) but that is neither a planet nor a moon or other natural satellite. More explicitly, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) defines a dwarf planet as a celestial body in direct orbit of the Sun[1] that is massive enough for its shape to be controlled by gravity, but that unlike a planet has not cleared its orbit of other objects.[2][3] However, only two of these bodies, Ceres and Pluto, have been observed in enough detail to demonstrate that they actually fit the IAU's definition. The classification of bodies in other planetary systems with the characteristics of dwarf planets has not been addressed.[17] History of the concept[edit] The IAU's final Resolution 5A preserved this three-category system for the celestial bodies orbiting the Sun. Name[edit] Characteristics[edit] *ME in Earth masses. Orbital dominance[edit] Size and mass[edit] Related:  things in space

Eris (dwarf planet) Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the ninth-most-massive body known to directly orbit the Sun.[d] It is estimated to be 2,326 (±12) km in diameter,[9] and 27% more massive than Pluto, or about 0.27% of the Earth's mass.[10][17] Routine observations were taken by the team on October 21, 2003, using the 1.2 m Samuel Oschin Schmidt telescope at Mount Palomar Observatory, California, but the image of Eris was not discovered at that point due to its very slow motion across the sky: The team's automatic image-searching software excluded all objects moving at less than 1.5 arcseconds per hour to reduce the number of false positives returned. When Sedna was discovered, it was moving at 1.75 arcsec/h, and in light of that the team reanalyzed their old data with a lower limit on the angular motion, sorting through the previously excluded images by eye. Distribution of trans-Neptunian objects

Dale Carnegie Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (spelled Carnagey until c. 1922) (November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer and lecturer and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills. Born into poverty on a farm in Missouri, he was the author of How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936), a massive bestseller that remains popular today. He also wrote How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (1948), Lincoln the Unknown (1932), and several other books. One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's behavior toward them. Biography[edit] Born in 1888 in Maryville, Missouri, Carnegie was a poor farmer's boy, the second son of James William Carnagey (b. After saving $500 (about $12700 today), Dale Carnegie quit sales in 1911 in order to pursue a lifelong dream of becoming a Chautauqua lecturer. During World War I he served in the U.S. Quotes[edit]

Terrestrial planet Structure[edit] Solar terrestrial planets[edit] Relative masses of the terrestrial planets of the Solar System, including the Moon During the formation of the Solar System, there were probably many more "terrestrial" planetesimals, but most merged with or were ejected by the four terrestrial planets. Density trends[edit] The uncompressed density of a terrestrial planet is the average density its materials would have at zero pressure. The densities of the solar terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the three largest asteroids are shown below. The main exception to this rule is the density of the Moon, which probably owes its lesser density to its unusual origin. It is unknown whether extrasolar terrestrial planets in general will also follow this trend. Extrasolar terrestrial planets[edit] During the early 1990s, the first extrasolar planets were discovered orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12, with masses of 0.02, 4.3, and 3.9 times that of Earth's, by pulsar timing. Frequency[edit] Types[edit]

Pluto In 2015, the Pluto system is due to be visited by spacecraft for the first time. The New Horizons probe will perform a flyby during which it will attempt to take detailed measurements and images of the plutoid and its moons. Discovery Discovery photographs of Pluto In the 1840s, using Newtonian mechanics, Urbain Le Verrier predicted the position of the then-undiscovered planet Neptune after analysing perturbations in the orbit of Uranus. In 1906, Percival Lowell, a wealthy Bostonian who had founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona in 1894, started an extensive project in search of a possible ninth planet, which he termed "Planet X".[25] By 1909, Lowell and William H. Tombaugh's task was to systematically image the night sky in pairs of photographs taken two weeks apart, then examine each pair and determine whether any objects had shifted position. Name The discovery made headlines across the globe. ), but has a circle in place of the middle prong of the trident ( Other factors

Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie (/kɑrˈneɪɡi/ kar-NAY-gee, but commonly /ˈkɑrnɨɡi/ KAR-nə-gee or /kɑrˈnɛɡi/ kar-NEG-ee;[2] November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was also one of the highest profile philanthropists of his era and had given away almost 90 percent – amounting to, in 1919, $350 million[3] (in 2014, $4.76 billion) – of his fortune to charities and foundations by the time of his death. His 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, and stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, and emigrated to the United States with his very poor parents in 1848. Biography Early life Railroads Carnegie age 16, with brother Thomas 1860–1865: The Civil War Defeat of the Confederacy required vast supplies of munitions, as well as railroads (and telegraph lines) to deliver the goods.

CH star CH stars are particular type of carbon stars which are characterized by the presence of exceedingly strong CH absorption bands in their spectra. They belong to the star population II, meaning they're metal poor and generally pretty middle-aged stars, and are underluminous compared to the classical C–N carbon stars. Many CH stars are known to be binaries, and it's reasonable to believe this is the case for all CH stars. Like Barium stars, they are probably the result of a mass transfer from a former classical carbon star, now a white dwarf, to the current CH-classed star. Ceres (dwarf planet) From Earth, the apparent magnitude of Ceres ranges from 6.7 to 9.3, and hence even at its brightest it is too dim to be seen with the naked eye except under extremely dark skies. Piazzi's book "Della scoperta del nuovo pianeta Cerere Ferdinandea" outlining the discovery of Ceres, dedicated the new "planet" to Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies One of the astronomers selected for the search was Giuseppe Piazzi at the Academy of Palermo, Sicily. By this time, the apparent position of Ceres had changed (mostly due to the Earth's orbital motion), and was too close to the Sun's glare for other astronomers to confirm Piazzi's observations. The early observers were only able to calculate the size of Ceres to within about an order of magnitude. The name Ceres is pronounced /ˈsɪəriːz/ (SEER-eez).[24] The old astronomical symbol of Ceres is a sickle, 〈⚳〉 ( ),[27] similar to Venus's symbol 〈♀〉 but with a break in the circle, with a variant 〈 Ceres (bottom left), the Moon and the Earth, shown to scale

Samuel Johnson After nine years of work, Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755. It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been described as "one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship."[3] This work brought Johnson popularity and success. Johnson was a tall and robust man. Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit] Born on 18 September 1709 (New Style) to Michael Johnson, a bookseller, and his wife, Sarah Ford,[7] Samuel Johnson often claimed that he grew up in poverty. Johnson's health improved and he was put to wet-nurse with Joan Marklew. When he was a child in petticoats, and had learnt to read, Mrs. Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson Johnson demonstrated signs of great intelligence as a child, and his parents, to his later disgust, would show off his "newly acquired accomplishments Entrance of Pembroke College, Oxford Johnson made friends at Pembroke and read much. Early career[edit] Elizabeth "Tetty" Porter, Johnson's wife

Astrochemistry Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance and reactions of chemical elements and molecules in the universe, and their interaction with radiation.[citation needed] The discipline is an overlap of astronomy and chemistry. The word "astrochemistry" may be applied to both the Solar System and the interstellar medium. The study of the abundance of elements and isotope ratios in Solar System objects, such as meteorites, is also called cosmochemistry, while the study of interstellar atoms and molecules and their interaction with radiation is sometimes called molecular astrophysics. The formation, atomic and chemical composition, evolution and fate of molecular gas clouds is of special interest, because it is from these clouds that solar systems form. Spectroscopy[edit] One particularly important experimental tool in astrochemistry is spectroscopy, the use of telescopes to measure the absorption and emission of light from molecules and atoms in various environments. Research[edit]

Haumea (dwarf planet) Two teams claim credit for the discovery of Haumea. Mike Brown and his team at Caltech discovered Haumea in December 2004 on images they had taken on May 6, 2004. On July 20, 2005, they published an online abstract of a report intended to announce the discovery at a conference in September 2005.[23] At around this time, José Luis Ortiz Moreno and his team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain found Haumea on images taken on March 7–10, 2003.[24] Ortiz emailed the Minor Planet Center with their discovery on the night of July 27, 2005.[24] Brown initially conceded discovery credit to Ortiz,[25] but came to suspect the Spanish team of fraud upon learning that his observation logs were accessed from the Spanish observatory the day before the discovery announcement. The proposal by the Ortiz team, Ataecina, did not meet IAU naming requirements, because Ataecina is not a creation deity.

Yogi Berra Berra is widely regarded as one of the greatest catchers in baseball history. He was named to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in a voting of fans in 1999. According to the win shares formula developed by sabermetrician Bill James, Berra is the greatest catcher of all time and the 52nd greatest non-pitching player in major-league history. Berra, who quit school after the eighth grade,[1] was also known for his mangled quotes, such as "It ain't over 'til it's over", while speaking to reporters. Early life[edit] He began playing baseball in local American Legion leagues, where he learned the basics of catching while playing outfield and infield positions as well. Professional career[edit] In 1942, the St. Yogi Berra in 1956. Berra was a fifteen-time All-Star, and won the league's MVP award three times, in 1951, 1954 and 1955. Playing style[edit] Managing career[edit] Berra as the New York Mets' first base coach, 1969. The following season looked like a disappointment at first.

Primary Life Support System A Portable Life Support System from the Apollo A7L suit, with its outer cover removed A Primary (or Portable or Personal) Life Support System (or /Subsystem) (PLSS), is a device connected to an astronaut or cosmonaut's spacesuit, which allows extra-vehicular activity with maximum freedom, independent of a spacecraft's life support system. The PLSS is generally worn like a backpack. The functions performed by the PLSS include: regulating suit pressureproviding breathable oxygenremoving carbon dioxide, humidity, odors, and contaminants from breathing oxygencooling and recirculating oxygen through the pressure garment, and water through a Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment or Liquid Cooling Garment.two-way voice communicationdisplay and/or telemetry of suit health parameterstelemetry of an indicator of the wearer's immediate health (e.g. heart rate) Apollo PLSS[edit] The interior of the Apollo PLSS. The PLSS was 26 inches (66 cm) high, 18 inches (46 cm) wide, and 10 inches (25 cm) deep.

Makemake (dwarf planet) Makemake (minor-planet designation 136,472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object (KBO) in the classical population,[nb 2] with a diameter that is about 2/3 the size of Pluto.[10][18] Makemake has no known satellites, which makes it unique among the largest KBOs and means that its mass can only be estimated. Its extremely low average temperature, about 30 K (−243.2 °C), means its surface is covered with methane, ethane, and possibly nitrogen ices.[15] Despite its relative brightness (it is about a fifth as bright as Pluto),[nb 3] Makemake was not discovered until well after many much fainter Kuiper belt objects. Most searches for minor planets are conducted relatively close to the ecliptic (the region of the sky that the Sun, Moon and planets appear to lie in, as seen from Earth), due to the greater likelihood of finding objects there. The provisional designation 2005 FY9 was given to Makemake when the discovery was made public.