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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Beckett
Samuel Barclay Beckett (/ˈbɛkɪt/; 13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. His work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human nature, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour. Beckett is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century.[2] He is considered one of the last modernists. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and drama—in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation".[3] He was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. Life and career[edit] Early life and education[edit] The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland. Early writings[edit] Beckett studied French, Italian, and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927 (one of his tutors was the eminent Berkeley scholar A. World War II[edit]

Franz Kafka Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In his lifetime, most of the population of Prague spoke Czech, and the division between Czech- and German-speaking people was a tangible reality, as both groups were strengthening their national identity. The Jewish community often found itself in between the two sentiments, naturally raising questions about a place to which one belongs. Kafka himself was fluent in both languages, considering German his mother tongue. Kafka trained as a lawyer and after completing his legal education, obtained employment with an insurance company. Life[edit] Family[edit] Plaque marking the birthplace of Franz Kafka in Prague. The Kafka family had a servant girl living with them in a cramped apartment. Education[edit] Employment[edit] Former home of the Worker's Accident Insurance Institute. Private life[edit] Kafka had an active sex life. Miss FB.

Waiting for Godot Plot[edit] Act I[edit] Estragon soon dozes off, but, after rousing him, Vladimir is not interested in hearing about Estragon's dreams—another recurring motif. Vladimir and Estragon begin to reflect on the encounter, with Vladimir suspecting that they have met Pozzo and Lucky before. Act II[edit] Pozzo and Lucky unexpectedly reappear, but the rope is much shorter than yesterday, and Lucky now guides Pozzo, rather than being driven by him since Pozzo apparently cannot see in front of him. While Estragon sleeps on, Vladimir is encountered by (apparently) the same boy from yesterday, though Vladimir wonders whether he might be the other boy's brother. Characters[edit] Beckett refrained from elaborating on the characters beyond what he had written in the play. Vladimir and Estragon[edit] Vladimir and Estragon (June 2010 production of the play at the The Doon School, India) Vladimir's life is not without its discomforts too but he is the more resilient of the pair. Pozzo and Lucky[edit]

F. Scott Fitzgerald Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigmatic writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century.[1] Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, The Great Gatsby (his most famous), and Tender Is the Night. Life and career[edit] Born in 1896 in Saint Paul, Minnesota, to an upper-middle-class family, Fitzgerald was named after his famous second cousin, three times removed, Francis Scott Key,[2] but was referred to by the familiar moniker Scott Fitzgerald. In 1908, his father was fired from Procter & Gamble, and the family returned to Minnesota, where Fitzgerald attended St. Fitzgerald's writing pursuits at Princeton came at the expense of his coursework. Zelda Fitzgerald[edit] "The Jazz Age"[edit] F.

100 Best Novels ULYSSES by James Joyce Written as an homage to Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey, Ulysses follows its hero, Leopold Bloom, through the streets of Dublin. Overflowing with puns, references to classical literature, and stream-of-consciousness writing, this is a complex, multilayered novel about one day in the life of an ordinary man. Initially banned in the United States but overturned by a legal challenge by Random House’s Bennett Cerf, Ulysses was called “a memorable catastrophe” (Virginia Woolf), “a book to which we are all indebted” (T. S. Click here to read more about ULYSSES THE GREAT GATSBY by F. Set in the Jazz Age, The Great Gatsby tells the story of the mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby, his decadent parties, and his love for the alluring Daisy Buchanan. A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN by James Joyce Published in 1916, James Joyce’s semiautobiographical tale of his alter ego, Stephen Dedalus, is a coming-of-age story like no other. LOLITA by Vladimir Nabokov U.S.A. In E.

Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski;[1]:11–12 Berdichev, Imperial Russia, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924, Bishopsbourne, Kent, England) was a Polish author who wrote in English after settling in England. He was granted British nationality in 1886, but always considered himself a Pole.[note 1] Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in English,[2] though he did not speak the language fluently until he was in his twenties (and always with a marked accent). He wrote stories and novels, often with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of an indifferent universe. He was a master prose stylist who brought a distinctly non-English[note 2] tragic sensibility into English literature.[3] While some of his works have a strain of romanticism, his works are viewed as modernist literature. Early life[edit] Nowy Świat 47, Warsaw, where three-year-old Conrad lived with his parents in 1861 Apollo did his best to home-school Conrad.

Sérgio Sant'Anna William Faulkner Biography[edit] Faulkner was born William Cuthbert Falkner in New Albany, Mississippi, the first of four sons of Murry Cuthbert Falkner (August 17, 1870 – August 7, 1932) and Maud Butler (November 27, 1871 – October 19, 1960).[3] He had three younger brothers: Murry Charles "Jack" Falkner (June 26, 1899 – December 24, 1975), author John Falkner (September 24, 1901 – March 28, 1963) and Dean Swift Falkner (August 15, 1907 – November 10, 1935). Faulkner was born and raised in the state of Mississippi, which had a great influence on him, as did the history and culture of the American South altogether. Soon after Faulkner's first birthday, his family moved to Ripley, Mississippi from New Albany. His family, particularly his mother Maud, his maternal grandmother Lelia Butler, and Caroline Barr (the black woman who raised him from infancy) crucially influenced the development of Faulkner's artistic imagination. As a schoolchild, Faulkner had much success early on. Personal life[edit]

Why Our Universe Must Have Been Born Inside a Black Hole “Accordingly, our own Universe may be the interior of a black hole existing in another universe.” So concludes Nikodem Poplawski at Indiana University in a remarkable paper about the nature of space and the origin of time. The idea that new universes can be created inside black holes and that our own may have originated in this way has been the raw fodder of science fiction for many years. But a proper scientific derivation of the notion has never emerged. Today Poplawski provides such a derivation. Poplawski points out that the standard derivation of general relativity takes no account of the intrinsic momentum of spin half particles. This predicts that particles with half integer spin should interact, generating a tiny repulsive force called torsion. That’s interesting for a number of reasons. Astrophysicists have long known that our universe is so big that it could not have reached its current size given the rate of expansion we see now. This is a Big Bang type event.

E. E. Cummings Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), known as E. E. Cummings, with the abbreviated form of his name often written by others in lowercase letters as e e cummings (in the style of some of his poems—see name and capitalization, below), was an American poet, painter, essayist, author, and playwright. Life[edit] i thank You God for most this amazing day:for the leaping greenly spirits of trees and a blue true dream of sky; and for everything which is natural which is infinite which is yes From "i thank You God for most this amazing" (1950) Early years[edit] Edward Estlin Cummings was born into a Unitarian family, son of Edward Cummings and Rebecca Haswell Clarke. Cummings wanted to be a poet from childhood and wrote poetry daily aged eight to 22, exploring assorted forms. masthead from volume 56 of The Harvard Monthly; Cummings was an editor and contributor to this literary journal while at Harvard The war years[edit] From "Buffalo Bill's" (1920) Post-war years[edit] and

The Great Dark Cosmic Side Coincidence [Earthlit Moon: Dorst/Druckmüller] One of the biggest mysteries — and wonders — in the known Universe flies over our heads every day. Or night, to be more precise. Alas, few human beings ever come to realize these questions even exist, much less ponder about them. Although often quoted polls suggest some people are still in the Middle Ages, most do know that planets are more or less spherical and revolve around the Sun. Now, then why does we always see the same Moon? One of the first images of the far side of the Moon, captured on 1959 The simple answer is that the Moon’s rotation period coincides with its orbital one, which in turn means that the time it takes for the Moon to turn around itself is the same as it takes for it to fly around Earth. Science does have an answer for it, and it involves the most traditional of the forces. All this heat doesn’t come from nothing, and it effectively decelerates the rotation period, exactly the one that determines the frequency of the tides. Amoon

James Joyce Joyce was born into a middle class family in Dublin, where he excelled as a student at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, then at University College Dublin. In his early twenties he emigrated permanently to continental Europe, living in Trieste, Paris and Zurich. Though most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe does not extend far beyond Dublin, and is populated largely by characters who closely resemble family members, enemies and friends from his time there; Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the streets and alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal Biography[edit] 1882–1904: Dublin[edit] Joyce's birth and baptismal certificate Joyce at age six, 1888 1904–20: Trieste and Zurich[edit]

Magic realism Magic realism or magical realism is a genre where magic elements are a natural part in an otherwise mundane, realistic environment.[1] Although it is most commonly used as a literary genre, magic realism also applies to film and the visual arts. One example of magic realism occurs when a character in the story continues to be alive beyond the normal length of life and this is subtly depicted by the character being present throughout many generations. On the surface the story has no clear magical attributes and everything is conveyed in a real setting, but such a character breaks the rules of our real world. The author may give precise details of the real world such as the date of birth of a reference character and the army recruitment age, but such facts help to define an age for the fantastic character of the story that would turn out to be an abnormal occurrence like someone living for two hundred years. Etymology[edit] Literature[edit] Characteristics[edit] Fantastical elements[edit]

Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill health for much of his remaining life. Life Early life Hemingway was the second child and first son born to Clarence and Grace Hemingway. Hemingway's mother frequently performed in concerts around the village. World War I Hemingway in uniform in Milan, 1918. Toronto and Chicago Cuba

One Hundred Years of Solitude One Hundred Years of Solitude (Spanish: Cien años de soledad) is a 1967 novel by Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez that tells the multi-generational story of the Buendía family, whose patriarch, José Arcadio Buendía, founds the town of Macondo, the metaphoric Colombia. Biography and publication[edit] Gabriel García Márquez was one of the four Latin American novelists first included in the literary Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s; the other three writers were the Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa, the Argentine Julio Cortázar, and the Mexican Carlos Fuentes. One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) earned García Márquez international fame as a novelist of the Magical Realism movement within the literatures of Latin America.[4] Plot[edit] One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) is the story of seven generations of the Buendía Family in the town of Macondo. Symbolism and metaphors[edit] The fate of Macondo is both doomed and predetermined from its very existence. Characters[edit] Amaranta

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