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Waiting for Godot

Waiting for Godot
Plot[edit] Act I[edit] Estragon soon dozes off, but, after rousing him, Vladimir is not interested in hearing about Estragon's dreams—another recurring motif. Vladimir and Estragon begin to reflect on the encounter, with Vladimir suspecting that they have met Pozzo and Lucky before. Act II[edit] Pozzo and Lucky unexpectedly reappear, but the rope is much shorter than yesterday, and Lucky now guides Pozzo, rather than being driven by him since Pozzo apparently cannot see in front of him. While Estragon sleeps on, Vladimir is encountered by (apparently) the same boy from yesterday, though Vladimir wonders whether he might be the other boy's brother. Characters[edit] Beckett refrained from elaborating on the characters beyond what he had written in the play. Vladimir and Estragon[edit] Vladimir and Estragon (June 2010 production of the play at the The Doon School, India) Vladimir's life is not without its discomforts too but he is the more resilient of the pair. Pozzo and Lucky[edit]

The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald—inspired by the parties he had attended while visiting Long Island's north shore—began planning the novel in 1923, desiring to produce, in his words, "something new—something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned."[3] Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924. His editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was too vague and convinced the author to revise over the next winter. Fitzgerald was ambivalent about the book's title, at various times wishing to re-title the novel Trimalchio in West Egg. First published by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly; in its first year, the book sold only 20,000 copies. Historical context[edit] Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a critical social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its narrative. Plot summary[edit] Major characters[edit] Cover art[edit]

Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (/ˈbɛkɪt/; 13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. His work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human nature, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour. Beckett is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century.[2] He is considered one of the last modernists. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and drama—in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation".[3] He was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. Life and career[edit] Early life and education[edit] The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland. Early writings[edit] Beckett studied French, Italian, and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927 (one of his tutors was the eminent Berkeley scholar A. World War II[edit]

Untimely Meditations Cover of the first edition of Vom Nutzen und Nachtheil der Historie für das Leben (the second essay of the work), 1874. Untimely Meditations (German: Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen), also translated as Unfashionable Observations[1] and Thoughts Out Of Season[2]) consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, started in 1873 and completed in 1876. The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European, especially German, culture. Publication[edit] Many different plans for the series are found in Nietzsche's notebooks, most of them showing a total of thirteen essays. Nietzsche abandoned the project after completing only four essays, seeming to lose interest after the publication of the third.[4] David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer[edit] On the Use and Abuse of History for Life[edit] Draft for the first chapter of the second Unzeitgemässe Betrachtung Schopenhauer as Educator[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Nineteen Eighty-Four History and title[edit] A 1947 draft manuscript of the first page of Nineteen Eighty-Four, showing the editorial development. The Last Man in Europe was an early title for the novel but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher Fredric Warburg, eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between The Last Man in Europe and Nineteen Eighty-Four.[14] Warburg suggested changing the main title to a more commercial one.[15] Copyright status[edit] The novel will be in the public domain in the European Union and Russia in 2021 and in the United States in 2044.[21] It is already in the public domain in Canada;[22] South Africa,[23] Argentina[24] Australia,[25] and Oman.[26] Background[edit] The banner of the Party in the 1984 film adaptation of the book (I) the upper-class Inner Party, the elite ruling minority, who make up 2% of the population. As the government, the Party controls the population with four ministries: Plot[edit] Characters[edit] Principal characters[edit]

100 Best Novels ULYSSES by James Joyce Written as an homage to Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey, Ulysses follows its hero, Leopold Bloom, through the streets of Dublin. Overflowing with puns, references to classical literature, and stream-of-consciousness writing, this is a complex, multilayered novel about one day in the life of an ordinary man. Initially banned in the United States but overturned by a legal challenge by Random House’s Bennett Cerf, Ulysses was called “a memorable catastrophe” (Virginia Woolf), “a book to which we are all indebted” (T. S. Click here to read more about ULYSSES THE GREAT GATSBY by F. Set in the Jazz Age, The Great Gatsby tells the story of the mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby, his decadent parties, and his love for the alluring Daisy Buchanan. A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN by James Joyce Published in 1916, James Joyce’s semiautobiographical tale of his alter ego, Stephen Dedalus, is a coming-of-age story like no other. LOLITA by Vladimir Nabokov U.S.A. In E.

The Wittgensteinian Brave New World Classic 1932 science fiction novel by Aldous Huxley In 1999, the Modern Library ranked Brave New World as #5 on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.[2] In 2003, Robert McCrum, writing for The Observer, included Brave New World chronologically at #53 in "the top 100 greatest novels of all time",[3] and the novel was listed at #87 on The Big Read survey by the BBC.[4] Title[edit] O wonder! Translations of the title often allude to similar expressions used in domestic works of literature: the French edition of the work is entitled Le Meilleur des mondes (The Best of All Worlds), an allusion to an expression used by the philosopher Gottfried Leibniz[7] and satirised in Candide, Ou l'Optimisme by Voltaire (1759). History[edit] Huxley said that Brave New World was inspired by the utopian novels of H. Plot[edit] Characters[edit] Bernard Marx, a sleep-learning specialist at the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. Benito Hoover, Another of Lenina's lovers.

Sérgio Sant'Anna Roland Barthes Roland Gérard Barthes (French: [ʁɔlɑ̃ baʁt]; 12 November 1915 – 26 March[1] 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician. Barthes' ideas explored a diverse range of fields and he influenced the development of schools of theory including structuralism, semiotics, social theory, anthropology and post-structuralism. Life[edit] Roland Barthes was born on 12 November 1915 in the town of Cherbourg in Normandy. He was the son of naval officer Louis Barthes, who was killed in a battle in the North Sea before his son was one year old. Barthes showed great promise as a student and spent the period from 1935 to 1939 at the Sorbonne, where he earned a license in classical letters. Barthes spent the early 1960s exploring the fields of semiology and structuralism, chairing various faculty positions around France, and continuing to produce more full-length studies. By the late 1960s, Barthes had established a reputation for himself. Writings and ideas[edit]

V for Vendetta Publication history[edit] When the publishers cancelled Warrior in 1985 (with two completed issues unpublished due to the cancellation), several companies attempted to convince Moore and Lloyd to let them publish and complete the story. In 1988, DC Comics published a ten-issue series that reprinted the Warrior stories in colour, then continued the series to completion. Background[edit] David Lloyd's paintings for V for Vendetta in Warrior originally appeared in black-and-white. Cover of Warrior#19, highlighting the comic's conflict between anarchist and fascist philosophies. In writing V for Vendetta, Moore drew upon an idea for a strip titled The Doll, which he had submitted in 1975 at the age of 22 to DC Thomson. Moore and Lloyd conceived the series as a dark adventure-strip influenced by British comic characters of the 1960s, as well as by Night Raven,[4] which Lloyd had previously worked on with writer Steve Parkhouse. Plot[edit] Book 1: Europe After the Reign[edit] Characters[edit]

Why Our Universe Must Have Been Born Inside a Black Hole “Accordingly, our own Universe may be the interior of a black hole existing in another universe.” So concludes Nikodem Poplawski at Indiana University in a remarkable paper about the nature of space and the origin of time. The idea that new universes can be created inside black holes and that our own may have originated in this way has been the raw fodder of science fiction for many years. But a proper scientific derivation of the notion has never emerged. Today Poplawski provides such a derivation. Poplawski points out that the standard derivation of general relativity takes no account of the intrinsic momentum of spin half particles. This predicts that particles with half integer spin should interact, generating a tiny repulsive force called torsion. That’s interesting for a number of reasons. Astrophysicists have long known that our universe is so big that it could not have reached its current size given the rate of expansion we see now. This is a Big Bang type event.

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