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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin) was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011,[4][9][10] with the epicentre approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km (18 mi).[4][11] The earthquake is often referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan Earthquake (東日本大震災, Higashi nihon daishinsai)[12][13][fn 1] and is also known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake,[28] and the 3.11 earthquake. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion.[53] The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions.[54] The World Bank's estimated economic cost was US$235 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in history.[55][56] Japan

Science Highlights 2010 - UNAVCO Event Response - Mw=8.8 Chile Earthquake Feb. 27, 2010 | UNAVCO Relevant Data Supersite UNAVCO is hosting the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) Supersite on the 2010 Chilean earthquake, featuring a variety of maps, images, and data. UNAVCO Event Response Forum For information on accessing data including high rate GPS, SAR data, seismic data from the PBO network, UNAVCO GPS equipment availability, and borehole strainmeter data from the PBO network go to our Event Response Forum. GPS Data Available from NASA/GNN Station SANT for Earthquake UNAVCO operates the NASA/GGN GPS station near Santiago (SANT), which is a high rate station set to log at 1 Hz (Fig. 12). The Great Earthquake of Feb. 27th, 2010 A magnitude 8.8 earthquake occurred at 3:34 AM local time (06:36 UTC) off the coast of the Maule region of central Chile. Tectonic Setting of this Event This megathrust earthquake resulted from the release of mechanical strain where the Nazca tectonic plate is being subducted beneath the South American plate. Community Response Community Scientists Dr.

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Ground Truth Trekking Blog » Largest Earthquakes since 1900 This is largely a repeat of part of my post following the 2010 Chile Earthquake, with a few updates and clarifications. Edit: I changed the earthquake magnitude from 8.9 to 9.0 reflecting the USGS’s catalog (as of 16 March 2011). What are the chances? Global occurrence of large earthquakes Does it seem like there are a lot of big earthquakes lately? Haiti, Chile, New Zealand, and Japan have all seen devastating earthquakes in the past 15 months. There is almost certainly no connection between the earthquakes in Haiti and New Zealand and other distant earthquakes. However, the largest earthquakes – those over magnitude 8 – do seem to cluster in time. We’ve been measuring earthquakes since 1900, and the recurrence of the largest ones doesn’t seem random. Click the graphic for data and vector graphic file. And the past decade has been a big one for earthquakes. What does this mean? Why do the biggest earthquakes come in clusters? At this point we don’t really know.

Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster December 2004: a Select Guide - University at Buffalo Libraries Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster December 26, 2004 and Reconstruction History & Events (Including Current) Maps & Images Relief Efforts & Contacts Tsunami Science Tsunami Awareness & Preparedness Earthquakes & Seismic Activity A Select Guide to Information On December 26, 2004, a massive earthquake occurred under the Indian Ocean just off the coast of Indonesia. Seven years later, programs and studies continue, both to support recovery efforts and to understand the science behind this devastating natural disaster. The earthquake has been titled the and is the highest magnitude earthquake in the region in over 40 years. Below are links to the event, the aftermath, news and relief activities, science pages on tsunamis and earthquakes, and other resources. 2010 October Indonesia Earthquake . Australia Region . UN Tracking System for Tsunami Relief Pledges: C urrent Status Reports (ReliefWeb). Significant Earthquakes & Disasters . See also: Current Indian Ocean events . Samoa Tsunami Disaster (CNN).

Understanding the Christchurch Earthquake of 22 Feb 2011: magnitude, location and impact | Posts from Keith Woodford Last September, those of us who live in Christchurch experienced a 7.1 earthquake. Since then, we have referred to that as ‘the big one’, confident that we would never again experience anything similar. In that September quake, there were no lives lost, but there were many houses badly damaged and destroyed. Well, everything has now changed. I do not intend to write here of the overwhelming human tragedy. We read in the media that this was a 6.3 earthquake on the Richter scale. (For those who are interested in the maths of the above numbers, the Richter Scale is logarithmic to base 10; also the energy released is a function of amplitude to the power of 1.5. The strength of the Richter scale (or more accurately the Modified Magnitude Scale) is that it provides an objective measure of the shaking amplitude and hence energy release. The key measure of intensity at a particular location is the ground acceleration. Like this: Like Loading...

[ISI Highly Cited Researchers Version 1.5] Welcome to Highly Cited Research from Thomson Reuters Once achieved, the Highly Cited designation is retained. With each new list, we add Highly Cited individuals, departments and laboratories to this elite community. They do not replace those recognized on previous lists. From 2000 to 2008, ISI Highly Cited highlighted the people behind the some of the world.s most influential research. Highly Cited Research offers a snapshot of these individuals, departments and laboratories that made fundamental contributions to the advancement of science and technology between 2000 and 2008. This Highly Cited Research resource captured the people behind the most influential publications in 21 broad subject categories in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences, engineering and social sciences based on citation metrics. This highly cited research was identified by the Thomson Reuters team between 2000 and 2008 based on analysis of papers covered in Web of Science from 1981-2008. ResearcherID

Understanding the Christchurch earthquake: building damage | Posts from Keith Woodford There are many puzzles as to why some of Christchurch’s buildings have survived the 6.3 earthquake of February 2011, and others have not. However, a combination of observations plus document-searching does provide some answers. In terms of magnitude, this was just a moderate earthquake, but the local effects on Christchurch have been huge because of its proximity and shallowness. Even within Christchurch, location was of huge importance, but there is more to it than that. It seems that we do indeed have very stringent building codes in New Zealand. Not only are the codes stringent, but they are enforced. Having planned the building of a new house both in Australia (in the 1980s) and in New Zealand ( in 2001), I know that the building code is a lot stronger here in New Zealand than in Australia. The messages from the 7.1 ‘dress rehearsal’ earthquake on September 2010 seemed reasonably straightforward. Unfortunately, a house with a concrete pad that has cracked and split is history.

Tectonics of the M7 earthquake near Christchurch, New Zealand | Highly Allochthonous This post was written in response to the Darfield earthquake in September 2010. The most recent seismic activity is discussed here. [Updated 8th September 1200 GMT – see bottom of post. The South Island of New Zealand has just been shaken by a large earthquake, reported as a magnitude 7.0 by the USGS. Focal mechanism of September 3rd earthquake, and it's location with respect to the plate boundary in New Zealand As the figure above illustrates, New Zealand is not just located on top of the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates: it is located at a point where the nature of that plate boundary changes in some rather fundamental ways. New Zealand is a region of distributed deformation: the relative motions between the Australian and Pacific plates are not accommodated on one or two faults in a narrow zone, but on many faults across a much wider zone. Update: 4/9/10 Here’s a couple more plots to that help to further put this earthquake in context. Some other useful links:

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics The world's earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth's surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones. Why is this? And why are volcanoes and mountain ranges also found in these zones, too? An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth's sciences in the last 10 years. Plate tectonics tells us that the Earth's rigid outer shell (lithosphere) is broken into a mosaic of oceanic and continental plates which can slide over the plastic aesthenosphere, which is the uppermost layer of the mantle. The lithosphere covers the whole Earth. One of the keys to plate tectonics was the discovery that the Earth's magnetic field has reversed its polarity 170 times in the last 80 million years. Using these magnetic strips as evidence of movement, it became obvious that the Earth's surface consisted of a mosaic of crustal plates that were continually jostling one another. How are earthquakes connected with plate tectonics?