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Ekpyrotic universe

Ekpyrotic universe
The ekpyrotic universe, or ekpyrotic scenario, is a cosmological model of the origin and shape of the universe. The name comes from a Stoic term ekpyrosis (Ancient Greek ἐκπύρωσις ekpurōsis) meaning conflagration or in Stoic usage "conversion into fire".[1] The ekpyrotic model of the universe is an alternative to the standard cosmic inflation model for the very early universe; both models accommodate the standard Big Bang Lambda-CDM model of our universe.[2][3] The ekpyrotic model is a precursor to, and part of, some cyclic models. The ekpyrotic model came out of work by Neil Turok and Paul Steinhardt and maintains that the universe did not start in a singularity, but came about from the collision of two branes. See also[edit] Notes and references[edit] Jump up ^ 'the dissolution of the universe into fire'. Further reading[edit] P. Related:  Physics

Ultimate fate of the universe The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology. Many possible fates are predicted by rival scientific theories, including futures of both finite and infinite duration. Once the notion that the universe started with a rapid inflation nicknamed the Big Bang became accepted by the majority of scientists,[1] the ultimate fate of the universe became a valid cosmological question, one depending upon the physical properties of the mass/energy in the universe, its average density, and the rate of expansion. There is a growing consensus among cosmologists that the universe is flat and will continue to expand forever.[2][3] The ultimate fate of the universe is dependent on the shape of the universe and what role dark energy will play as the universe ages. Emerging scientific basis[edit] Theory[edit] The theoretical scientific exploration of the ultimate fate of the universe became possible with Albert Einstein's 1916 theory of general relativity. Observation[edit] Big Rip[edit]

Ten games that make you think about life At the start of this year, we decided to come up with a list of Flash casual games with a philosophical bent. To be honest, we struggled. After days of research, we could only find a handful of games that had the thought-provoking depth we were looking for. Our list (which you can view by clicking here) was therefore only five games long. Fast forward to now, and it is remarkable how much difference a few months can make. In a wonderful twist, it seems it is the Flash gaming space - until now known more for the throwaway nature of its games rather than depth - that is leading the way in this exciting new area of gaming, as we hope the following games prove. One you have finished playing these games, check out our follow-up lists: Ten More Games That Make You Think About Life and Another 20 Games That Make You Think About Life. 1Immortall The game starts with you crash landing on a planet. 2Loved 3I Can Hold My Breath Forever 4The Company of Myself 5Coma 6Loondon 7I Wish I Were the Moon

Cosmological principle Astronomer William Keel explains: The cosmological principle is usually stated formally as 'Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the Universe are the same for all observers.' This amounts to the strongly philosophical statement that the part of the Universe which we can see is a fair sample, and that the same physical laws apply throughout. The cosmological principle contains three implicit qualifications and two testable consequences. The second implicit qualification is that "looks the same" does not mean physical structures necessarily, but the effects of physical laws in observable phenomena. The cosmological principle is first clearly asserted in the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) of Isaac Newton. Implications[edit] The universe is now described as having a history, starting with the Big Bang and proceeding through distinct epochs of stellar and galaxy formation. Justification[edit] Criticism[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Diffeomorphism The image of a rectangular grid on a square under a diffeomorphism from the square onto itself. Definition[edit] Given two manifolds M and N, a differentiable map f : M → N is called a diffeomorphism if it is a bijection and its inverse f−1 : N → M is differentiable as well. If these functions are r times continuously differentiable, f is called a Cr-diffeomorphism). Two manifolds M and N are diffeomorphic (symbol usually being ≃) if there is a diffeomorphism f from M to N. Diffeomorphisms of subsets of manifolds[edit] Given a subset X of a manifold M and a subset Y of a manifold N, a function f : X → Y is said to be smooth if for all p in X there is a neighborhood U ⊂ M of p and a smooth function g : U → N such that the restrictions agree (note that g is an extension of f). Local description[edit] Remark 1. Then f is surjective and its satisfies thus Dfx is bijective at each point yet f is not invertible, because it fails to be injective, e.g., f(1,0) = (1,0) = f(−1,0). Remark 2. Remark 3.

Hindu cycle of the universe See also Hindu units of measurement. This is similar to the Cyclical Universe Theory in physical cosmology. The Big Bang is described as the birth of the universe (Brahma), the life of the universe then follows (Vishnu), and the Big Crunch would be described as the destruction of the universe (Shiva). In a number of stories from the Puranas the continual creation and destruction of the universe is equated to the outwards and inwards breaths of the gigantic cosmic Maha Vishnu. Hindu thesis of creation[edit] Initially everything was unmanifested and was one without a second . In vishnu purana ,It is stated that the purusha(GOD) manifests himself into three forms to maintain the material realm or the manifested realm . Karnodakasayi Vishnu expands himself as Garbhodakasayivisnu and enters into each universe and from Garbhodakasayivisnu originates bhrama from the naval . Hindu viewpoint of modern cosmology[edit] Even string theory finds a place in the Hindu texts. The end of the universe[edit]

Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS[1] (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.[2] Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics. Early life and career[edit] Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. Max Planck's signature at ten years of age. Planck was born in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig. Planck as a young man, 1878 In 1877 he went to Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. Academic career[edit] , where .

Multiverse (religion) In religion a multiverse is the concept of a plurality of universes. Some religious cosmologies propose that the cosmos is not the only one that exists. The concept of infinite worlds is mentioned in the Apannaka Jataka: "Disciples," the Buddha said "nowhere between the lowest of hells below and the highest heaven above, nowhere in all the infinite worlds that stretch right and left, is there the equal, much less the superior, of a Buddha. The concept of multiple universes is mentioned many times in Hindu Puranic literature, such as in the Bhagavata Purana: Every universe is covered by seven layers — earth, water, fire, air, sky, the total energy and false ego — each ten times greater than the previous one. The number of universes seems to be uncountable according to the Puranic literature: Even though over a period of time I might count all the atoms of the universe, I could not count all of My opulences which I manifest within innumerable universes (Bhagavata Purana 11.16.39)

Shape of the Universe The shape of the universe is the local and global geometry of the universe, in terms of both curvature and topology (though, strictly speaking, it goes beyond both). When physicsist describe the universe as being flat or nearly flat, they're talking geometry: how space and time are warped according to general relativity. When they talk about whether it open or closed, they're referring to its topology.[1] Although the shape of the universe is still a matter of debate in physical cosmology, based on the recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) measurements "We now know that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error", according to NASA scientists. [2] Theorists have been trying to construct a formal mathematical model of the shape of the universe. Two aspects of shape[edit] The local geometry of the universe is determined by whether the density parameter Ω is greater than, less than, or equal to 1. Local geometry (spatial curvature)[edit] Global geometry[edit]

Hindu cosmology In Hindu cosmology the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. The Hindu literature, such as Vedas, Puranas, cites the creation of universe. They describe the aspects of evolution, astronomy, etc. Description[edit] The Hindu cosmology and timeline is the closest to modern scientific timelines[1] and even more which might indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything,[2] but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.[3] The Rig Veda questions the origin of the cosmos in: "Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology. Map 2: Intermediate neighbourhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. Map 3: Local neighbourhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. Overview of Yugas: Further elaborations from the Vedic texts[edit] Rig Veda[edit] The Puranas[edit] Multiverse in Hinduism[edit] See also[edit]

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