Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre Chancellor of the King of Egypt, Doctor, First in line after the King of Upper Egypt, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary nobleman, High Priest of Heliopolis, Builder, Chief Carpenter, Chief Sculptor, and Maker of Vases in Chief. He was one of only a few commoners ever to be accorded divine status after death. The center of his cult was Memphis. From the First Intermediate Period onward Imhotep was also revered as a poet and philosopher. Attribution of achievements and inventions Architecture and engineering Pyramid of Djoser Medicine Imhotep was an important figure in Ancient Egyptian medicine. Descriptions of Imhotep by James Henry Breasted et al "In priestly wisdom, in magic, in the formulation of wise proverbs; in medicine and architecture; this remarkable figure of Zoser's reign left so notable a reputation that his name was never forgotten. 'Imhotep extracted medicine from plants.' Deification Birth myths
Related: Ancient Egypt
• Ancient Egypt
Hor-AhaHor-Aha (or Aha or Horus Aha) is considered the second pharaoh of the first dynasty of ancient Egypt in current Egyptology. He lived around the thirty-first century BC and is thought to have had a long reign. Identity Name The commonly-used name Hor-Aha is a rendering of the pharaoh's Horus-name, an element of the royal titulary associated with the god Horus, and is more fully given as Horus-Aha meaning Horus the Fighter. For the Early Dynastic Period, the archaeological record refers to the pharaohs by their Horus-names, while the historical record, as evidenced in the Turin and Abydos king lists, uses an alternative royal titulary, the nebty-name. The different titular elements of a pharaoh's name were often used in isolation, for brevity's sake, although the choice varied according to circumstance and period. Inscription bearing Hor-Aha's serekh together with a Nebty-name expressed with the game-board hieroglyph, which could be read mn. Theories Reign
5.9 kiloyear eventThe 5.9 kiloyear event was one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene Epoch. It occurred around 3900 BC (5,900 years BP), ending the Neolithic Subpluvial and probably initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert. Cause Effects In the Middle East the 5.9 kiloyear event contributed to the abrupt end of the Ubaid period. It was associated with an abandonment of unwalled villages and the rapid growth of hierarchically structured walled cities, and in the Jemdet Nasr period, with the first book-keeping scripts. See also References
HorusHorus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egypt specialists. These various forms may possibly be different perceptions of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality. He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a lanner or peregrine, or as a man with a falcon head. Etymology Horus was also known as Nekheny, meaning "falcon". Note of changes over time In early Egypt, Horus was the brother of Isis, Osiris, Set and Nephthys. Horus and the pharaoh Origin mythology Mythological roles Sky god God of war and hunting
OgdoadIn Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad (Greek "ογδοάς", the eightfold) were eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC. In Egyptian mythology Together the four concepts represent the primal, fundamental state of the beginning. They are what always was. The entity containing Ra is depicted either as an egg or as a lotus bud. In the former version, a mound arises from the waters. In Gnosticism The number eight plays an important part in Gnostic systems, and it is necessary to distinguish the different forms in which it appeared at different stages in the development of Gnosticism. In the system of Valentinus, the seven heavens, and even the region above them, were regarded as but the lowest and last stage of the exercise of creative power. 7 + 1 Seven heavens Eighth sphere The mysteries of the number seven are treated of by Clem. 6 + 2 First Ogdoad 4 + 4
Franck Goddio: Projects: Sunken civilizations: HeracleionWith a unique survey-based approach that utilises the most sophisticated technical equipment, Franck Goddio and his team, in cooperation with the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, were able to locate, map and excavate parts of the city of Thonis-Heracleion, which lies 6.5 kilometres off today’s coastline. The city is located within an overall research area of 11 by 15 kilometres in the western part of Aboukir Bay at a depth of approx. 10 metres. Research started in 1996. It took years to map the entire area. The objects recovered from the excavations illustrate the cities’ beauty and glory, the magnificence of their grand temples and the abundance of historic evidence: colossal statues, inscriptions and architectural elements, jewellery and coins, ritual objects and ceramics - a civilization frozen in time. The port of Thonis-Heracleion had numerous large basins and functioned as a hub of international trade.
Ancient Egyptian religionAncient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature. The practices of Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic. The religion had its roots in Egypt's prehistory and lasted for more than 3,000 years. Theology The beliefs and rituals now referred to as "Ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture. Deities The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, in order from left to right The Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces in and of themselves. Amun-Ra kamutef, wearing the plumed headdress of Amun and the sun disk representing Ra
Red PyramidThe Red Pyramid was not always red. It used to be cased with white Tura limestone, but only a few of these stones now remain at the pyramid's base, at the corner. During the Middle Ages much of the white Tura limestone was taken for buildings in Cairo, revealing the durable reddish granite stone beneath. Isometric, plan and elevation images of the Red Pyramid Complex taken from a 3d model This pyramid forms the third largest granite building in the whole world to the present. History Comparison of approximate profiles of Red Pyramid with some notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Archaeologists speculate its design may be an outcome of engineering crises experienced during the construction of Sneferu's two earlier pyramids. Modern day Detail of the massive corbel-vaulted ceiling of the main burial chamber The Red Pyramid, along with the Bent Pyramid, was closed to tourists for many years because of a nearby army camp. See also References Romer, John (2007).
WondjinaIn Aboriginal mythology, the Wondjina (or Wandjina) were cloud and rain spirits who, during the Dream time, created or influenced the landscape and its inhabitants. When they found the place they would die, they painted their images on cave walls and entered a nearby waterhole. The Wondjina style dates from around 3800 B.P., following the end of a millennium long drought that gave way to a wetter climate characterised by regular monsoons. Today, certain Aboriginal people of the Mowanjum tribes repaint the images to ensure the continuity of the Wondjina's presence. Annual repainting in December or January also ensures the arrival of the monsoon rains, according to Mowanjum belief. Repainting has occurred so often that at one site the paint is over 40 layers deep. The painting style evolves during this process: the figures of recent years are stockier and some now possess eyelashes. In 2007, graffiti depictions of Wandjina appeared in Perth, Western Australia.