PMI UK Chapter Change management Change management is an approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations to a desired future state. In a project management context, change management may refer to a project management process wherein changes to the scope of a project are formally introduced and approved. History 1960s Everett Rogers wrote the book Diffusion of Innovations in 1962. There would be five editions of the book through 2003, during which time the statistical analysis of how people adopt new ideas and technology would be documented over 5000 times. 1980s McKinsey consultant Julien Phillips first published a change management model in 1982 in the journal Human Resource Management, though it took a decade for his change management peers to catch up with him. 1990s In 1994, Daryl Conner founded Conner Partners and in 1993, he wrote the book, Managing at the Speed of Change. 2000s 2010s Approach Reasons for change Managing the change process
change management principles, process, tips and change theory and models Instead, change needs to be understood and managed in a way that people can cope effectively with it. Change can be unsettling, so the manager logically needs to be a settling influence. Check that people affected by the change agree with, or at least understand, the need for change, and have a chance to decide how the change will be managed, and to be involved in the planning and implementation of the change. Use face-to-face communications to handle sensitive aspects of organisational change management (see Mehrabian's research on conveying meaning and understanding). If you think that you need to make a change quickly, probe the reasons - is the urgency real? For complex changes, refer to the process of project management, and ensure that you augment this with consultative communications to agree and gain support for the reasons for the change. To understand more about people's personalities, and how different people react differently to change, see the personality styles section.
Change Management infoKit - Overview and Introduction Change is endemic in the education sector. The pressures for change come from all sides: globalisation, changes to the funding and regulatory regime, doing more with less, improving the quality of student learning and the learning experience, and the pace of change is ever increasing. Living with change and managing change is an essential skill for all. Change is also difficult. There are many different types of change and different approaches to managing change. It is a topic subject to more than its fair share of management fads, quick fixes and guaranteed win approaches. The following diagram describes the general route through the materials in the Kit: This infoKit was originally developed in 2006 out of a HEFCE Good Management Practice Project led by the University of Luton (now the University of Bedfordshire) entitled ‘Effecting Change in Higher Education’. The ‘Effecting Change’ team summarise their findings by the following observations:
Change management The NHS is currently undergoing a period of intensive change - technological, social and economic - so there is a real need for all managers to facilitate this change within their organisations and the wider NHS environment. Focus on change management - why is it important? Resources and online tools to develop change management skills Useful books to read Managing change There is a variety of sources of change that impact on individuals in their working life: Change for Service Improvement - e.g. changing how we deliver a serviceOrganisational Change - e.g. restructuring / reorganization / mergers Change for Development - e.g. career developments such as promotion, changes in work / life balance Different types of change require different approaches, but fundamentally managers of staff need to ensure that they support their team through the change. The process of transition © 2000 / 3 JM Fisher. Back to the top
Change Management - Practical Strategies For Managing Change What Is Programme Management? Traditional Project Management approaches tend to look at a project as a discrete entity having its own set of resources (the budget and project team) and producing its own set of deliverables that deliver benefit to the organisation. In a complex organisation such as a college or university rarely is any project completely self-contained. Even a relatively simple IT application is likely to require interfaces to other systems and most of our activities impact on a diverse range of stakeholder groups. Large organisations such as ours also tend to have hundreds of individual projects running at the same time and many find themselves at the mercy of inter-departmental competition for resources. The principles behind Programme Management will help you to manage in this complex environment. This infoKit assumes you are familiar with the terms and concepts in our Project Management infoKit. At its simplest Programme Management can be defined as The additional benefits might include:
Knowledge Management basic information Process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organization Knowledge management (KM) is the collection of methods relating to creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organization. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieve organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge. An established discipline since 1991, KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, library, and information science. Other fields may contribute to KM research, including information and media, computer science, public health and public policy. Several universities offer dedicated master's degrees in knowledge management. History In 1999, the term personal knowledge management was introduced; it refers to the management of knowledge at the individual level. Research Dimensions The Knowledge Spiral as described by Nonaka & Takeuchi.
Quality System - Quality Management Plans A Quality Management Plan documents how an organization will plan, implement, and assess the effectiveness of its quality assurance and quality control operations. Specifically, it describes how an organization structures its quality system, the quality policies and procedures, areas of application, and roles, responsibilities, and authorities. The elements of a quality system are documented in a Quality Management Plan. The Quality Management Plan is an organization or program-specific document; it describes the general practices of an organization or program. References Frequently Asked Questions on Quality Management Plans EPA Quality Manual for Environmental Programs EPA CIO 2105-P-01-0 (PDF 62pp, 169K). Training Introduction to Quality Management Plans. Examples and Other On-line Resources
DIKW pyramid Data, information, knowledge, wisdom hierarchy The DIKW pyramid, also known variously as the DIKW hierarchy, wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy, and the data pyramid, refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge". History Danny P. The presentation of the relationships among data, information, knowledge, and sometimes wisdom in a hierarchical arrangement has been part of the language of information science for many years. Where is the Life we have lost in living? Data, Information, Knowledge Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom In 1994 Nathan Shedroff presented the DIKW hierarchy in an information design context which later appeared as a book chapter.  Description Data Data as fact Wisdom
Constantly late with work? Blame the planning fallacy - BBC Worklife This tendency may be exacerbated by “motivated reasoning” – we often look only for the evidence that suits our goals, and it is often within our interests to feel that a project can be completed quickly and with less effort, leading us to ignore or dismiss clues that it might take longer. We could tell ourselves that all our suppliers will be more reliable this time, or the transport problems that set us back last time were a one off, because we want to feel confident that the project will go more smoothly this time. Motivated reasoning could be a particular problem in businesses where people could be rewarded for unrealistically short deadlines, which might explain why it is particularly rife in IT. “It could be something to do with the need to be competitive to secure contracts and thus underestimating the costs involved when tendering,” says Kevin Thomas at the University of Bournemouth in the UK.