Stages of Sleep Usually sleepers pass through five stages: 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. These stages progress cyclically from 1 through REM then begin again with stage 1. A complete sleep cycle takes an average of 90 to 110 minutes. Stage 1 is light sleep where you drift in and out of sleep and can be awakened easily. In stage 2, eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with only an occasional burst of rapid brain waves. Slow wave sleep comes mostly in the first half of the night, REM in the second half. In the REM period, breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly and limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Infants spend almost 50% of their time in REM sleep. As sleep research is still a relatively young field, scientists did not discover REM sleep until 1953 when new machines were developed to monitor brain activity. The brain waveform during REM has low amplitudes and high frequencies, just like the waking state. Circadian Cycles and Sleep
02.22.2010 - An afternoon nap markedly boosts the brain’s learning capacity If you see a student dozing in the library or a co-worker catching 40 winks in her cubicle, don’t roll your eyes. New research from the University of California, Berkeley, shows that an hour’s nap can dramatically boost and restore your brain power. Indeed, the findings suggest that a biphasic sleep schedule not only refreshes the mind, but can make you smarter. Students who napped (green column) did markedly better in memorizing tests than their no-nap counterparts. (Courtesy of Matthew Walker) Conversely, the more hours we spend awake, the more sluggish our minds become, according to the findings. “Sleep not only rights the wrong of prolonged wakefulness but, at a neurocognitive level, it moves you beyond where you were before you took a nap,” said Matthew Walker, an assistant professor of psychology at UC Berkeley and the lead investigator of these studies. In the recent UC Berkeley sleep study, 39 healthy young adults were divided into two groups — nap and no-nap.
What It’s Like to Be an Expert Lucid Dreamer -- Science of Us “My dreams leave impressions that are as strong or stronger than anything I experience when I’m awake.” By Alexa Tsoulis-Reay It’s estimated that most people will have a lucid dream — one in which they are aware that they are asleep and might have some measure of control over their actions — at least once in their life. But there are those who claim to “get lucid” much more frequently. Studies have shown that lucid dreaming — reported anecdotally throughout history, but only scientifically documented in 1975 — can be successfully induced with a range of techniques from acoustic stimulation to herbal supplements. (There are even online resources like the Lucid Dreaming Fast Track, an at-home tutorial created by a woman who taught herself to lucid dream during adolescence so she could overcome her anxiety and low self-esteem.) Recently, Science of Us spoke with 55-year-old Peter Maich of New Zealand about his experiences as an advanced, lifelong lucid dreamer. Is that restful sleep?
Understanding Sleep: Deep Sleep, REM Sleep, Cycles, Stages, and The power of sleep Many of us try to sleep as little as possible. There are so many things that seem more interesting or important than getting a few more hours of sleep, but just as exercise and nutrition are essential for optimal health and happiness, so is sleep. The quality of your sleep directly affects the quality of your waking life, including your mental sharpness, productivity, emotional balance, creativity, physical vitality, and even your weight. No other activity delivers so many benefits with so little effort! Understanding sleep Sleep isn’t exactly a time when your body and brain shut off. The good news is that you don't have to choose between health and productivity. Myths and Facts about Sleep Myth 1: Getting just one hour less sleep per night won’t affect your daytime functioning. Myth 2: Your body adjusts quickly to different sleep schedules. Myth 3: Extra sleep at night can cure you of problems with excessive daytime fatigue. How many hours of sleep do you need? REM sleep
Chico Xavier Francisco Cândido Xavier, conhecido como Chico Xavier (1910 - 2002). Espírita brasileiro. Cerca de 265 frases e pensamentos: Chico Xavier A gente pode morar numa casa mais ou menos, numa rua mais ou menos, numa cidade mais ou menos, e até ter um governo mais ou menos. A gente pode dormir numa cama mais ou menos, comer um feijão mais ou menos, ter um transporte mais ou menos, e até ser obrigado a acreditar mais ou menos no futuro. A gente pode olhar em volta e sentir que tudo está mais ou menos... O que a gente não pode mesmo, nunca, de jeito nenhum... Senão a gente corre o risco de se tornar uma pessoa mais ou menos. Chico Xavier A sua irritação não solucionará problema algum... CONFIE SEMPRE Não percas a tua fé entre as sombras do mundo. Que eu continue com vontade de viver, mesmo sabendo que a vida é,em muitos momentos, uma lição difícil de ser aprendida. Oração Nossa Senhor ensina-nos a orar, sem esquecer o trabalho. A sofrer, sem magoar, seja quem for. A desculpar, sem condições.
Lucid Dreamers Are Better Problem-Solvers -- Science of Us Lucid dreamers are those lucky individuals who are aware that they’re dreaming and are able to control what happens in their dreams. (Jump off a cliff and soar through the air? Sure. Walk across the ocean? Go for it!) Previously, research has shown that frequent lucid dreamers are better at common tasks used in psychology studies, such as the Stroop test (in which, for example, the word green is written in blue ink and participants have to name the color, not the word). In this study, the participants who reported frequent lucid dreams were better at the task than those who occasionally or rarely experienced lucid dreams. What the paper didn’t demonstrate, however, was causality — in other words, you can’t necessarily expect that if you train yourself to become a lucid dreamer, you’ll also get better at this kind of problem solving. Bourke has had a few of his own lucid dreams in the years since he began researching the topic, and he described one in an email to Science of Us:
Brain Chemicals That Cause Sleep Paralysis Discovered | REM Sleep Disorder During the most dream-filled phase of sleep, our muscles become paralyzed, preventing the body from acting out what's going on in the brain. Now, researchers have discovered the brain chemicals that keep the body still in sleep. The findings could be helpful for treating sleep disorders, the scientists report Wednesday (July 18) in The Journal of Neuroscience. The brain chemicals kick into action during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a phase that usually begins about 90 minutes into a night's rest. This paralysis keeps people still even as their brains are acting out fantastical scenarios; it's also the reason people sometimes experience sleep paralysis, or the experience of waking up while the muscles are still frozen. The chemistry of sleep Exactly how the muscles are paralyzed has been a mystery, however. So University of Toronto researchers Patricia Brooks and John Peever cast a wider net. Treating sleep disorders
40 Pictures of Puppy Dogs November 29, 2010 | 399 Comments » | Topics: Cute, Dog, Pictures What Did Abraham Lincoln Dream About? 8 Stories of Famous Dreams Perhaps the most famous dream of all: Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, as imagined by John Simmons in 1873. (Photo: Public Domain/WikiCommons) This is part three of a five-part series on sleep and dreams, sponsored by Oso mattresses. Read the two here and here. In the 18th century, many Americans were dubious of dreams, considering them to be products of bad indigestion or possible portents of mental illness, and were not likely to record or analyze them. In other words, it became cool to start telling people your dreams. In his book Lincoln Dreamt He Died: The Midnight Visions of Remarkable Americans from Colonial Times to Freud, historian Andrew Burstein chronicles this transformation in attitudes. Abigail Adams confided her dreams to her husband John Adams. Abigail to John Adams, January 1, 1797. I seldom think twice of a Dream but last night I had one of so singular a nature that it has amused my mind today with various conjectures. “What book is that in your hands?”
Lucid Dreaming Tips - How to Lucid Dream - Tips for Lucid Dreaming / Lucid Dreams The Six Basic Steps There are many techniques and methods that you can use for inducing lucid dreams, but there is an underlying process behind most, if not all of them. I have broken this underlying process down into six basic steps to serve as a foundation for your lucid dream training. In case you are wondering how long it will take for you to have your first one, just follow through with the steps and have faith that you will have one. 1) Doing the Mental Prep-Work 2) Increasing dream recall 3) Keeping a dream journal 4) Becoming familiar with your Dreams 5) Adding Awareness to your Waking Consciousness 6) Linking your Awareness to your Dreams Step One) Doing the Mental Prep-Work This step involves setting up the right mental foundation and building a mental framework that will maximize your success. Here are four key questions that you need to ask yourself. "Do you think you can do this?" "Do you think dreams are important?" "Do you really want to have lucid dreams?" So be positive. 1.)