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A cyborg (short for "cybernetic organism") is a theoretical or fictional being with both organic and biomechatronic parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1] D. S. The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic and often applied to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[3][4] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism and the term "Cybernetic organism" has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which have been classed as such. Overview[edit] The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. Origins[edit] The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. The term was coined by Manfred E. Cyborg tissues in engineering[edit] Individual cyborgs[edit] Animal cyborgs[edit] Related:  Cyborgenic Reengineering the Human BodyEvolution Continues

Human enhancement An electrically powered exoskeleton suit in development as of 2010 by Tsukuba University of Japan. Human enhancement is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means. It is the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range." [1][2][3] Technologies[edit] Existing technologies[edit] Emerging technologies[edit] Speculative technologies[edit] Ethics[edit] While in some circles the expression "human enhancement" is roughly synonymous with human genetic engineering,[6][7] it is used most often to refer to the general application of the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC) to improve human performance.[5] Inequality and social disruption[edit] Effects on identity[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Transhumanism Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international cultural and intellectual movement with an eventual goal of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities.[1] Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of developing and using such technologies. They speculate that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label "posthuman".[1] History[edit] According to Nick Bostrom,[1] transcendentalist impulses have been expressed at least as far back as in the quest for immortality in the Epic of Gilgamesh, as well as historical quests for the Fountain of Youth, Elixir of Life, and other efforts to stave off aging and death. First transhumanist proposals[edit]

Cyborgs Among Us: Human 'Biohackers' Embed Chips In Their Bodies In tattoo parlors and basements around the world, people are turning themselves into cyborgs by embedding magnets and computer chips directly into their bodies. They call themselves biohackers, cyborgs and grinders. With each piece of technology they put beneath their skin, they are exploring the boundaries — and the implications — of fusing man and machine. Welcome to the world of biohacking. It's a niche community at the literal bleeding edge of body modification, and it attracts fervent fans from a variety of schools of thought. Sign up for top Technology news direct to your inbox For cyborg Zoe Quinn, a well-known developer in the independent video game world, the magnet and chip in her hand have become inseparable from her body and her identity. "Being a cyborg is just who I am now," Quinn told NBC News. "I realized, oh my God, I'm feeling my hard drive." Gaining a magnetic or electronic "sixth sense" isn't easy. "It was like my finger had exploded," Quinn said. But Dr. Lars Norgaard

Electronic tattoo An ultra-thin electronic device that attaches to the skin like a stick on tattoo can measure electrical activity of the human body like heart, brain waves and other vital signs without the bulky electrodes used in current monitoring. process[edit] These tattoos are similar to those in children's fake tattoos. It usually starts out on a sheet of plastic, is then applied to the skin and rubbed on from outside the plastic, then the plastic is peeled away, leaving only a very thin, rubber patch that has a layer of flexible silicon wires. It is ultra-thin slices of plastic or rubber that encases tiny silicon wires, sensors, radios, cameras and even electricity generating cells. Applications[edit] There are many applications in health care, wellness, and fitness. A company called Electrozyme makes electronic tattoos that appear to target athletic performance. There is a specific patent for an electronic tattoo that functions as a lie detector. References[edit]

Singularity Singularity or Singular points may refer to: Science and technology[edit] Mathematics[edit] Mathematical singularity, a point at which a given mathematical object is not defined or not "well-behaved", for example infinite or not differentiable Geometry[edit] Singular point of a curve, where the curve is not given by a smooth embedding of a parameterSingular point of an algebraic variety, a point where an algebraic variety is not locally flatRational singularity, a concept in singularity theorySingularity theory, which deals with these concepts Complex analysis[edit] Essential singularity, a singularity near which a function exhibits extreme behaviorIsolated singularity, a mathematical singularity that has no other singularities close to itMovable singularity, a concept in singularity theoryRemovable singularity, a point at which a function is not defined but at which it can be so defined that it is continuous at the singularity Natural sciences[edit] Technology[edit] Literature[edit] Movies[edit]

Will US cyborgs be the next to deploy? Tiny walking bio-bots are powered by muscle cells and controlled by an electric field.Janet Sinn-Hanlon/Group VetMed A new cyborg – part machine and part biological muscle – has taken its first steps. University of Illinois researchers, in a report published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, say their tiny new creature is the first robot that uses live muscle for power. The researchers, with funding from the National Science Foundation, have created a muscle-powered biological machine that can be controlled with an electric current. It could lead to a new generation of biological robots, or “biobots.” Researchers around the world have been hoping to use this type of technology for a range of applications, from building military robots to designing replacement organs. Military robots have been on the U.S. military’s table for a while. But humanoid robots, like humans, are very complicated, and they remain elusive for now. How does it work?

Engineered Human Intestines Function Like the Real Thing in Mice Researchers have engineered small intestinal tissue from human cells, and when placed in mice, the transplants were able to digest and absorb like the real thing. The work, published in the American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology this week, could help treat one of the major causes of intestinal failure in premature babies and newborns. Previous studies by Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) researchers showed how tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) could be generated from taking human small intestine donor tissue and then implanting it into immunocompromised mice. Now, CHLA’s Tracy Grikscheit and colleagues have found that mouse TESI is very similar to the TESI derived from human cells—and that both contain key building blocks such as the precursors (both stem and progenitor cells) that will go on to regenerate a living tissue replacement intestine. Read this next: World First: Scientists Observe DNA Shuttling Between Cells, Triggering Tumor Growth

The Venus Project Gel IUPAC definition Gel: Nonfluid colloidal network or polymer network that is expanded throughout its whole volume by a fluid.[4] Note 1: A gel has a finite, usually rather small, yield stress. Note 2: A gel can contain: (i) a covalent polymer network, e.g., a network formed by crosslinking polymer chains or by nonlinear polymerization; (ii) a polymer network formed through the physical aggregation of polymer chains, caused by hydrogen bonds, crystallization, helix formation, complexation, etc., that results in regions of local order acting as the network junction points. (iii) a polymer network formed through glassy junction points, e.g., one based on block copolymers. (iv) lamellar structures including mesophases {Ref.[5] defines lamellar crystal and mesophase}, e.g., soap gels, phospholipids, and clays; Note 3: Corrected from ref.,[6] where the definition is via the property identified in Note 1 (above) rather than of the structural characteristics that describe a gel.[7] Composition[edit]

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