background preloader


Metadata is "data about data".[1] There are two "metadata types;" structural metadata, about the design and specification of data structures or "data about the containers of data"; and descriptive metadata about individual instances of application data or the data content. The main purpose of metadata is to facilitate in the discovery of relevant information, more often classified as resource discovery. Metadata also helps organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, and helps support archiving and preservation of the resource. Metadata assists in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, and giving location information." [2] Definition[edit] Metadata (metacontent) is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data, such as: Metadata is data. Libraries[edit] Photographs[edit] Video[edit] Web pages[edit] [edit] [edit] Related:  Privacy

MIT researchers measure your pulse, detect heart abnormalities with smartphone camera Last year, a group of researchers from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL) showed us just how easy it is to “see” a human heartbeat in ordinary video footage. With a little filtering, a little averaging, and a touch of turn-of-the-century (1900) mathematical analysis, the telltale color changes in the skin associated with the peak pressure pulse of the heart can be seen by anyone. The CSAIL researchers have now rejigged their algorithms to optimize instead for detection of the head motion artifact associated with each beat. The release from MIT on this work mentions that the heart rate variability (HRV) — the moment-to-moment deviations from constancy — can be used to diagnose potential heart issues. Without getting too boggled up, we will just mention here that there are many ways to derive and characterize HRV. On their own, things like pulse, blood oxygenation, pupil dilation, or skin resistance, are of limited use.

Intranet An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization. This term is used in contrast to extranet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure, and may be composed of multiple local area networks. The objective is to organize each individual's desktop with minimal cost, time and effort to be more productive, cost efficient, timely, and competitive. An intranet may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration. An intranet can be understood as a private analog of the Internet, or as a private extension of the Internet confined to an organization. Intranets are sometimes contrasted to extranets.

Sistema de gestión de bases de datos Un sistema de gestión de bases de datos (SGBD) es un conjunto de programas que permiten el almacenamiento, modificación y extracción de la información en una base de datos, además de proporcionar herramientas para añadir, borrar, modificar y analizar los datos. Los usuarios pueden acceder a la información usando herramientas específicas de interrogación y de generación de informes, o bien mediante aplicaciones al efecto Los SGBD también proporcionan métodos para mantener la integridad de los datos, para administrar el acceso de usuarios a los datos y para recuperar la información si el sistema se corrompe. Permite presentar la información de la base de datos en variados formatos. La mayoría de los SGBD incluyen un generador de informes. Hay muchos tipos de SGBD distintos según manejen los datos y muchos tamaños distintos según funcionen sobre ordenadores personales y con poca memoria a grandes sistemas que funcionan en mainframes con sistemas de almacenamiento especiales. [editar]

Scientist-developed malware covertly jumps air gaps using inaudible sound Computer scientists have proposed a malware prototype that uses inaudible audio signals to communicate, a capability that allows the malware to covertly transmit keystrokes and other sensitive data even when infected machines have no network connection. The proof-of-concept software—or malicious trojans that adopt the same high-frequency communication methods—could prove especially adept in penetrating highly sensitive environments that routinely place an "air gap" between computers and the outside world. Using nothing more than the built-in microphones and speakers of standard computers, the researchers were able to transmit passwords and other small amounts of data from distances of almost 65 feet. The software can transfer data at much greater distances by employing an acoustical mesh network made up of attacker-controlled devices that repeat the audio signals. "This small bandwidth might actually be enough to transfer critical information (such as keystrokes)," Hanspach wrote. Update

Proprietary software Proprietary software or closed source software is computer software licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder with the intent that the licensee is given the right to use the software only under certain conditions, and restricted from other uses, such as modification, sharing, studying, redistribution, or reverse engineering.[1][2] Usually the source code of proprietary software is not made available. Complementary terms include free software,[2][3] licensed by the owner under more permissive terms, and public domain software, which is not subject to copyright and can be used for any purpose. Proponents of free and open source software use proprietary or non-free to describe software that is not free or open source.[4][5] A related but distinct categorization in the software industry is commercial software, which refers to software produced for sale but not necessarily closed source. Software becoming proprietary[edit] Legal basis[edit] Limitations[edit] Similar terms[edit]

Database Management System: Basics Air gap (networking) An air gap or air wall[1] is a network security measure that consists of ensuring that a secure computer network is physically isolated from unsecured networks, such as the public Internet or an unsecured local area network.[2] It is often taken for computers and networks that must be extraordinarily secure. Frequently the air gap is not completely literal, such as via the use of dedicated cryptographic devices that can tunnel packets over untrusted networks while avoiding packet rate or size variation; even in this case, there is no ability for computers on opposite sides of the air gap to communicate. In environments where networks or devices are rated to handle different levels of classified information, the two (dis-)connected devices/networks are referred to as "low side" and "high side", low being unclassified and high referring to classified, or classified at a higher level. This is also occasionally referred to as red (classified) and black (unclassified).

Integrated library system An integrated library system (ILS), also known as a library management system (LMS),[1][2] is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. An ILS usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. History[edit] Pre-computerization[edit] Prior to computerization, library tasks were performed manually and independently from one another. 1960s: the influence of computer technologies[edit] 1990s–2000s: the growth of the Internet[edit]