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Metadata

Metadata
Metadata is "data about data".[1] There are two "metadata types;" structural metadata, about the design and specification of data structures or "data about the containers of data"; and descriptive metadata about individual instances of application data or the data content. The main purpose of metadata is to facilitate in the discovery of relevant information, more often classified as resource discovery. Metadata also helps organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, and helps support archiving and preservation of the resource. Metadata assists in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, and giving location information." [2] Definition[edit] Metadata (metacontent) is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data, such as: Metadata is data. Libraries[edit] Photographs[edit] Video[edit] Web pages[edit] [edit] [edit] Related:  Privacy

Métadonnée Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Un exemple type est d'associer à une donnée la date à laquelle elle a été produite ou enregistrée, ou à une photo les coordonnées GPS du lieu où elle a été prise. Historique[modifier | modifier le code] Tous les établissements qui ont à gérer de l'information, bibliothèques, archives ou médiathèques ont déjà une longue pratique dans la codification du signalement ou des contenus des documents qu'ils manipulent. Ces descriptions ont ensuite été informatisées sous la forme de notices bibliographiques et normalisées (voir par exemple les formats MARC en 1964 utilisant la norme ISO 2709 dont la conception a démarré en 1960). Les bibliothèques numériques ont eu recours aux mêmes dispositifs pour gérer et localiser des documents électroniques. Le terme métadonnée (en anglais : metadata) est apparu dans le cadre de la description de ressources sur Internet dans les années 1990 et s'est ensuite généralisé. Généralisation[modifier | modifier le code]

MIT researchers measure your pulse, detect heart abnormalities with smartphone camera Last year, a group of researchers from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL) showed us just how easy it is to “see” a human heartbeat in ordinary video footage. With a little filtering, a little averaging, and a touch of turn-of-the-century (1900) mathematical analysis, the telltale color changes in the skin associated with the peak pressure pulse of the heart can be seen by anyone. The CSAIL researchers have now rejigged their algorithms to optimize instead for detection of the head motion artifact associated with each beat. The release from MIT on this work mentions that the heart rate variability (HRV) — the moment-to-moment deviations from constancy — can be used to diagnose potential heart issues. Without getting too boggled up, we will just mention here that there are many ways to derive and characterize HRV. On their own, things like pulse, blood oxygenation, pupil dilation, or skin resistance, are of limited use.

Intranet An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization. This term is used in contrast to extranet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure, and may be composed of multiple local area networks. The objective is to organize each individual's desktop with minimal cost, time and effort to be more productive, cost efficient, timely, and competitive. An intranet may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration. An intranet can be understood as a private analog of the Internet, or as a private extension of the Internet confined to an organization. Intranets are sometimes contrasted to extranets.

Wiki A wiki (/ˈwɪki/ ( listen) WIK-ee) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor.[1] A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users.[2] There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Characteristics Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:[8] Editing Linking and creating pages Searching History Implementations Rules

Raw data Raw datas (also known as primary data) is a term for data collected from a source. Raw data has not been subjected to processing or any other manipulation, and are also referred to as primary data. Raw data is a relative term (see data). Raw data can be input to a computer program or used in manual procedures such as analyzing statistics from a survey. The term can refer to the binary data on electronic storage devices such as hard disk drives (also referred to as low-level data). In computing, raw data may have the following attributes: possibly containing errors, not validated; in different (colloquial) formats; uncoded or unformatted; and suspect, requiring confirmation or citation. Raw data (sometimes called "sourcey" data or "eggy" data) are the data input to processing. Although raw data has the potential to become "information," extraction, organization, and sometimes analysis and formatting for presentation are required for that to occur.

Ontologie (informatique) Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Par analogie, le terme est repris en informatique et en science de l'information, où une ontologie est l'ensemble structuré des termes et concepts représentant le sens d'un champ d'informations, que ce soit par les métadonnées d'un espace de noms, ou les éléments d'un domaine de connaissances. L'ontologie constitue en soi un modèle de données représentatif d'un ensemble de concepts dans un domaine, ainsi que des relations entre ces concepts. Elle est employée pour raisonner à propos des objets du domaine concerné. Plus simplement, on peut aussi dire que l' « ontologie est aux données ce que la grammaire est au langage ». L'objectif premier d'une ontologie est de modéliser un ensemble de connaissances dans un domaine donné, qui peut être réel ou imaginaire. Les ontologies informatiques sont des outils qui permettent précisément de représenter un corpus de connaissances sous une forme utilisable par un ordinateur. Notes

Scientist-developed malware covertly jumps air gaps using inaudible sound Computer scientists have proposed a malware prototype that uses inaudible audio signals to communicate, a capability that allows the malware to covertly transmit keystrokes and other sensitive data even when infected machines have no network connection. The proof-of-concept software—or malicious trojans that adopt the same high-frequency communication methods—could prove especially adept in penetrating highly sensitive environments that routinely place an "air gap" between computers and the outside world. Using nothing more than the built-in microphones and speakers of standard computers, the researchers were able to transmit passwords and other small amounts of data from distances of almost 65 feet. The software can transfer data at much greater distances by employing an acoustical mesh network made up of attacker-controlled devices that repeat the audio signals. "This small bandwidth might actually be enough to transfer critical information (such as keystrokes)," Hanspach wrote. Update

Proprietary software Proprietary software or closed source software is computer software licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder with the intent that the licensee is given the right to use the software only under certain conditions, and restricted from other uses, such as modification, sharing, studying, redistribution, or reverse engineering.[1][2] Usually the source code of proprietary software is not made available. Complementary terms include free software,[2][3] licensed by the owner under more permissive terms, and public domain software, which is not subject to copyright and can be used for any purpose. Proponents of free and open source software use proprietary or non-free to describe software that is not free or open source.[4][5] A related but distinct categorization in the software industry is commercial software, which refers to software produced for sale but not necessarily closed source. Software becoming proprietary[edit] Legal basis[edit] Limitations[edit] Similar terms[edit]

List of wikis This page contains a list of notable websites that use a wiki model. These websites will sometimes use different software in order to provide the best content management system for their users' needs, but they all share the same basic editing and viewing website model. §Table[edit] §See also[edit] §References[edit] §External links[edit]

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