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Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationship, or a political structure that encompasses different nations. In a cosmopolitan community individuals from different places (e.g. nation-states) form relationships of mutual respect. Various cities and locales, past or present, have or are defined as "cosmopolitan"; that does not necessarily mean that all or most of their inhabitants consciously embrace the above philosophy. Etymology[edit] The word derives from the Greek κοσμοπολίτης, or kosmopolitês, formed from "κόσμος", kosmos, i.e. Definitions[edit] Definitions of cosmopolitanism usually begin with the Greek etymology of "citizen of the world". Philosophical cosmopolitanism[edit] Philosophical roots[edit] Bennington. Related:  Inner Searchstoicism

5-Step Action Guide to Shine Your Light in 2010 5-Step Action Guide to Shine Your Light in 2010 Have you ever wondered why it seems so easy for some people to make major changes in their life while others sit back as passive observers wondering what happened? They begin to wonder where their life went wrong. Taking action is the first step to living an empowered life and who doesn’t want that? As you read through the 5 steps that follow, slow down and take your time. Try to find the time to answer the questions in a written format rather than answering them in your mind. Step One: Choose what you want. The first step is deciding what you want. While exploring your questions in step one, be playful. “The first principle of success is desire – knowing what you want. Coaching questions: What did you love to do as a child? Step Two: Set an Intention. I am often asked, “What does it mean to set an intention?” “When you set an intention, when you commit, the entire universe conspires to make it happen.” —Sandy Forster —Sigmund Freud —Stephen R.

SystemsWiki Matter Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound. This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects.[1][2] All the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are composed of atoms. Matter should not be confused with mass, as the two are not quite the same in modern physics.[7] For example, mass is a conserved quantity, which means that its value is unchanging through time, within closed systems. Definition Common definition Relativity Atoms definition Structure Quarks

Letting Go of Attachment “Most of our troubles are due to our passionate desire for and attachment to things that we misapprehend as enduring entities.” ~Dalai Lama Editor’s note: This is a guest post from Lori Deschene of Tiny Buddha. If there’s one thing we all have in common it’s that we want to feel happy; and on the other side of that coin, we want to avoid hurting. We pin our happiness to people, circumstances, and things and hold onto them for dear life. We attach to feelings as if they define us, and ironically, not just positive ones. In trying to hold on to what’s familiar, we limit our ability to experience joy in the present. When you stop trying to grasp, own, and control the world around you, you give it the freedom to fulfill you without the power to destroy you. It’s no simple undertaking to let go of attachment—not a one-time decision, like pulling off a band-aid. The best approach is to start simple, at the beginning, and work your way to Zen. Experiencing Without Attachment Call yourself out.

Strategic Thinking Approaching Business with Systems Thinking Businesses promote and sell products and services, which includes solutions to a problem or benefit of a product. In a lot of businesses, expertise is an key capability that leads to the ability to provide optimum service. That is why some companies create functional teams within their corporate structure to ensure that expert service is provided. The team of workers should be strategically placed so that their expertise can be appropriately utilized. Why You Should Embrace Systems Thinking When a business uses a systems thinking approach to doing business, it makes the system more efficient and cost-effective. Systems thinking combined with human interaction with customers is exemplary of a wide range of things working efficiently for the same goal. Working together for a common goal is pretty much what systems thinking is about.

Susanne Bobzien Susanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher,[1] whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy.[2] She currently is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford.[3] Education[edit] Bobzien was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1960.[1] She graduated in 1985 with an M.A. (Magister Artium) at Bonn University,[4] and in 1993 with a doctorate in philosophy (D.Phil) at Oxford University.[2] Academic career[edit] Main contributions to philosophy[edit] Determinism and freedom[edit] Kant: Bobzien's "Die Kategorien der Freiheit bei Kant" (The Categories of Freedom in Kant) has been described as an article "that has long been the starting point for any German reader seeking to deepen his understanding of the second chapter of [the Analytic of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason] Ancient logic[edit] Vagueness[edit] Major publications[edit] Determinism and freedom[edit]

The Art of Loving Yourself What's Next Chrysippus Chrysippus of Soli (Greek: Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus; c. 279 – c. 206 BC[1]) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was a native of Soli, Cilicia, but moved to Athens as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism.[2] Chrysippus excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics. Life[edit] Chrysippus threw himself eagerly into the study of the Stoic system. Chrysippus was a prolific writer. He died during the 143rd Olympiad (208–204 BC) at the age of 73.[1] Diogenes Laërtius gives two different accounts of his death.[13] In the first account, Chrysippus was seized with dizziness having drunk undiluted wine at a feast, and died soon after. Philosophy[edit] Logic[edit] Propositions[edit]

Critical Thinking Worksite: Introduction I. Just What is Critical Thinking? When you hear "critical thinking", it is natural to think of criticism---that is, of unpleasant episodes involving your parents or your boss. One can think critically in episodes like these, but the term applies to many others as well. Critical thinking is evaluative thinking---it involves evaluating options for the purpose of reaching conclusions about those options. Alongside writing and speaking, it is one of the most important intellectual skills you possess. We can say a bit more about how it is intended to enhance your critical thinking ability. II. When your beliefs are at stake, it's time to think critically. At this worksite, we concentrate on argument analysis. Argument Identification: The first step in argument analysis is knowing that you are in the presence of an argument. In the next three sections, we develop each of these stages, exercising your mastery of them element by element.

Union of International Associations | Propositional calculus Usually in Truth-functional propositional logic, formulas are interpreted as having either a truth value of true or a truth value of false.[clarification needed] Truth-functional propositional logic and systems isomorphic to it, are considered to be zeroth-order logic. History[edit] Although propositional logic (which is interchangeable with propositional calculus) had been hinted by earlier philosophers, it was developed into a formal logic by Chrysippus[1] and expanded by the Stoics. The logic was focused on propositions. Propositional logic was eventually refined using symbolic logic. Just as propositional logic can be considered an advancement from the earlier syllogistic logic, Gottlob Frege's predicate logic was an advancement from the earlier propositional logic. Terminology[edit] The language of a propositional calculus consists of Mathematicians sometimes distinguish between propositional constants, propositional variables, and schemata. , and , propositional variables by . and with