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Antidepressants in Bipolar Disorder

Antidepressants in Bipolar Disorder
PsychEducation.org (home) Antidepressants in Bipolar Disorder: The Controversies[Updated 2/2014 with ISBD review. Controversy 3 updated in September 2009; all else is older. This page has been maintained for nearly 5 years. The bottom line overall here: antidepressants may carry much more risk for people with bipolar disorder than is generally recognized. However, antidepressants may pose bigger risks in the long term. Therefore, considerable caution should be used before starting an antidepressant in a patient with bipolar disorder. Finally, some patients clearly do better if they stay on an antidepressant. Page outline International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force recommendations: you might just want to read this and stop there! Controversy "zero": Do antidepressants even work in bipolar depression? Controversy 1: Antidepressants can cause "switching" from depression to hypomania or mania, but how common is this? Controversy 2a: Do antidepressants cause rapid cycling? 1. 2. 3. Related:  reaserch 2Mental Health

Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia: Symptoms, Self-Help, and Treatment What is social anxiety disorder / social phobia? Matthew’s story Matthew skipped class today. It’s the first day of the new semester, and he’s afraid that the professor will go around the class and have the students introduce themselves. Since public speaking is Matthew’s worst nightmare, he’s been avoiding a speech class he has to take in order to graduate. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, involves intense fear of certain social situations—especially situations that are unfamiliar or in which you feel you’ll be watched or evaluated by others. These social situations may be so frightening that you get anxious just thinking about them or go to great lengths to avoid them. Underlying social anxiety disorder or social phobia is the fear of being scrutinized, judged, or embarrassed in public. While it may seem like there’s nothing you can do about the symptoms of social anxiety disorder or social phobia, in reality, there are many things that can help. Related Articles

How to Recognize a Manic Episode or Hypomanic Episode of Bipolar Disorder If someone you know has or may have bipolar disorder, you need to know the signs that point to a manic or hypomanic episode. If you see a group of these behaviors, you (if possible and appropriate) or the individual in question should contact a doctor. Going to an emergency room may be the right choice, depending on how extreme the behavior is. Keep a notebook just for recording manic (and depressive) symptoms. Note: Most symptoms are shared between mania and hypomania. Those that are not are indicated. Make note of any changes in sleeping patterns, especially if your friend or loved one has lots of energy on just a few hours of sleep. Tips: Make a pact with your friend that if you bring these manic behaviors to his attention, he will contact his doctor. This is not an exhaustive list of manic symptoms.

Bipolar Advantage Bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder (and originally called manic-depressive illness), is a mental disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression.[1][2] The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania depending on the severity or whether there is psychosis. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable.[1] They often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced.[2] During periods of depression there may be crying, poor eye contact with others, and a negative outlook on life.[1] The risk of suicide among those with the disorder is high at greater than 6% over 20 years, while self harm occurs in 30–40%.[1] Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorder and drug misuse are commonly associated.[1] Signs and symptoms Manic episodes Hypomanic episodes Depressive episodes Mixed affective episodes Associated features

A Systematic Review of Comparative Efficacy of Treatments and Controls for Depression Abstract Background Although previous meta-analyses have examined effects of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and alternative therapies for depression, the efficacy of these treatments alone and in combination has not been systematically compared. We hypothesized that the differences between approved depression treatments and controls would be small. Methods and Findings The authors first reviewed data from Food and Drug Administration Summary Basis of Approval reports of 62 pivotal antidepressant trials consisting of data from 13,802 depressed patients. Conclusions In conclusion, the combination of psychotherapy and antidepressants for depression may provide a slight advantage whereas antidepressants alone and psychotherapy alone are not significantly different from alternative therapies or active intervention controls. Citation: Khan A, Faucett J, Lichtenberg P, Kirsch I, Brown WA (2012) A Systematic Review of Comparative Efficacy of Treatments and Controls for Depression. Introduction

Chronic Anxiety Disorder: The Price You Pay for Hiding Your True Self | Drivi... The more I learn about anxiety, the more I realize just how widespread a problem it really is. There are millions upon MILLIONS of people all over the globe struggling with some sort of chronic anxiety disorder, often more than one type. Seeing how much people are suffering makes me really sad sometimes. It also pushes me to understand and overcome the limitations my own anxieties are still placing on my life. One thing I’m becoming more aware of — and more pissed off about — is how often my own anxiety is caused by hiding who I really am. “The most important kind of freedom is to be what you really are. Anxious people tend to be intelligent, sensitive people. I’d hazard a guess there’s not one person with chronic anxiety disorder who hasn’t hidden their true self behind an emotional and/or behavioral mask at one time or another. There’s nothing wrong with hiding what we really think or feel in certain situations. Some common emotional masks anxious people tend to wear include:

Bipolar Disorder - National Institute of Mental Health Introduction: Bipolar Disorder This booklet discusses bipolar disorder in adults. For information on bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, see the NIMH booklet, “Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens: A Parent’s Guide.” What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Bipolar disorder often develops in a person's late teens or early adult years. Bipolar disorder is not easy to spot when it starts. What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder? People with bipolar disorder experience unusually intense emotional states that occur in distinct periods called "mood episodes." Extreme changes in energy, activity, sleep, and behavior go along with these changes in mood. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are described below. In addition to mania and depression, bipolar disorder can cause a range of moods, as shown on the scale. Genetics

Two Popular Foods May Turn Immune System Against Brain Sayer Ji, GreenMedInfoWaking Times A new study published in the open access journal Nutrients titled, “The Prevalence of Antibodies against Wheat and Milk Proteins in Blood Donors and Their Contribution to Neuroimmune Reactivities,” implicates two of the Western world’s most popular foods in various forms of immune-mediated brain damage and dysfunction, including gluten ataxia and multiple sclerosis. A group of U.S. researchers set out to ascertain the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against wheat and milk, in 400 blood samples, from 181 males and 219 female donors of mixed ancestry. Because wheat and milk antibodies have been found in elevated concentrations in various neuroimmune disorders, the researchers measured the co-occurrence of their antibodies against the following brain proteins: GAD-65 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase)Cerebellar peptidesMBP (myelin basic protein)MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) The results were reported in the study abstract as follows: Sources:

The worst scars are in the mind: psychological torture Torture often includes methods that entail severe psychological distress and profoundly disrupt the senses and personality. This article describes how psychological methods which do not amount to ill-treatment when considered in isolation can amount to torture through their accumulation over time and their integration into the whole torture process. Dr Hernán Reyes, MD, of the ICRC’s Assistance Division, is a specialist on medical aspects of detention and has visited numerous detention centres around the world. Abstract Torture during interrogation often includes methods that do not physically assault the body or cause actual physical pain – and yet entail severe psychological pain and suffering and profoundly disrupt the senses and personality.

Bipolar Disorder Signs & Symptoms: Mania & Bipolar Depression What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior—from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. More than just a fleeting good or bad mood, the cycles of bipolar disorder last for days, weeks, or months. During a manic episode, a person might impulsively quit a job, charge up huge amounts on credit cards, or feel rested after sleeping two hours. The causes of bipolar disorder aren’t completely understood, but it often appears to be hereditary. Myths and Facts About Bipolar Disorder Myth: People with bipolar disorder can’t get better or lead a normal life. Fact: Many people with bipolar disorder have successful careers, happy family lives, and satisfying relationships. Myth: People with bipolar disorder swing back and forth between mania and depression. Myth: Bipolar disorder only affects mood. Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder Signs and symptoms of mania Important

Another Reason Why Wheat and GMOs Can Destroy Your Health Sayer Ji, GreenMedInfoWaking Times A new study indicates that wheat contributes to the growth of pathogenic bacteria in our gut, adding to growing concern that GMO foods are doing the same. A new study published in FEMS Microbiology Ecology titled, “Diversity of the cultivable human gut microbiome involved in gluten metabolism: isolation of microorganisms with potential interest for coeliac disease,” has revealed something remarkable about the human gut bacteria (microbiome). This discovery is all the more interesting when you consider that, according to Alessio Fasano, the Medical Director for The University of Maryland’s Center for Celiac Research, the human genome does not possess the ability to produce enzymes capable of sufficiently breaking down gluten. As reported on TenderFoodie in interview: “We do not have the enzymes to break it [gluten] down. The new study helps to fill the knowledge gap as to how humans are capable of dealing with wheat consumption at all. About the Author

Treating Anxiety Naturally By Alex ‘Earthie Mama’ Du Toit Guest Writer for Wake Up World Everyone experiences anxiety every once in a while. Anxiety is an overwhelming feeling of worry that effects the body both mentally and physically. For many people, these symptoms can be debilitating and hard to live with. Anxiety is the “fight or flight” mechanism in your body. Anxiety is necessary for us today as well. 1. There is a lot of research that shows anxiety can originate in the gut. 2. GABA: GABA is an amino acid known for its calming effect on our central nervous systems. Omega 3s: Omega-3 fatty acids can reduce the symptoms caused from anxiety, aiding the body keep cellular receptors in optimal condition. “Japanese researchers found that a diet high in fish protects people from depression and suicide, while in Finland a team of researchers surveyed 1,767 residents and concluded that eating fish more than twice a week has a protective effect against suicide and depression.” 3. 4. 5. 6. Article Sources:

8 Ways to Help Your Bipolar Loved One Cope - Beyond Blue “Bewitched, bothered, and bewildered am I” wrote US songwriter Lorenz Hart about the feeling of infatuation. It’s blissful and euphoric, as we all know. But it’s also addicting, messy and blinding. Without careful monitoring, its wild wind can rage through your life leaving you much like the lyrics of a country song: without a wife, job and truck. So how do you reign in this powerful beast? Click here to continue reading this post. When does reciting scripture become a symptom of neurosis? Click here to continue reading this post. One of my mom’s best pieces of advice: “Hang with the winners.” Click here to continue reading this post. For people prone to depression and anxiety – i.e. human beings – the holidays invite countless possibility to get sucked into negative and catastrophic thinking. Click here to continue reading this post.

The Forgotten Organ – Your Microbiota Dr. MercolaWaking Times Researchers are increasingly starting to recognize gut microbiota as one of your unappreciated “organs.”1 It may be even more apt to view your body as a “super organism” composed of symbiotic microorganisms, as proposed in the video below. Either way, there’s no denying the powerful influence these microorganisms have on both your physical and mental health. This is great news, since this places you in a distinct position of power over your health and well-being. As recently reported by the Institute of Science in Society:2 “The rapidly progressing study of the human microbiota is revealing that humans are not individual self-contained beings, but instead hugely complex super-organisms that blur the distinction between where ‘we’ end and ‘they’ begin.The human microbiota consists of an estimated 100 trillion cells, at least 10 times the number of human cells, and new research is revealing how this symbiotic relationship determines human health and disease.”

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