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The Hominidae (/hɒˈmɪnɨdiː/; also known as great apes[notes 1]) form a taxonomic family of primates, including four extant genera: The term "hominid" is also used in the more restricted sense as hominins or "humans and relatives of humans closer than chimpanzees".[2] In this usage, all hominid species other than Homo sapiens are extinct. A number of known extinct genera are grouped with humans in the Homininae subfamily, others with orangutans in the Ponginae subfamily. History[edit] Species close to the last common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus found in Greece. Taxonomic history[edit] The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades. The primatological term hominid is easily confused with a number of very similar words: Especially close human relatives form a subfamily, the Homininae. Classification[edit] Extant[edit] Fossil[edit] Family Hominidae Related:  Family

Ponginae Ponginae is a subfamily in the hominidae family. Once a diverse lineage of Eurasian apes, it is now represented by two species of orangutans, the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), and the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). The Sumatran orangutan is now listed as critically endangered by the IUCN and the Bornean orangutan is listed as endangered.[1][2] Evolutionary history[edit] The first pongine genera appear in the Miocene, Sivapithecus and Khoratpithecus,[3][4] six or seven million years before evidence of orangutans was found from Pleistocene south-east Asia and southern China.[5] Ponginae may also include the genera Lufengpithecus, Ankarapithecus, and Gigantopithecus. The most well-known fossil genus of Ponginae is Sivapithecus, consisting of several species from 12.5 million to 8.5 million years ago. Taxonomy[edit] Ponginae[7] References[edit] Jump up ^ Singleton, I., Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. (2008).

Primates A primate ( With the exception of humans, which inhabit every continent,[a] most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia.[5] They range in size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern lowland gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb). Based on fossil evidence, the earliest known true primates, represented by the genus Teilhardina, date to 55.8 million years old.[6] An early close primate relative known from abundant remains is the Late Paleocene Plesiadapis, circa 55–58 million years old.[7] Molecular clock studies suggest that the primate branch may be even older, originating in the mid-Cretaceous period around 85 mya.[7] Considered generalist mammals, primates exhibit a wide range of characteristics. Some primates (including some great apes and baboons) are primarily terrestrial rather than arboreal, but all species possess adaptations for climbing trees. Historical and modern terminology[edit]

Homininae Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae that includes humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and some extinct relatives; it comprises all hominids that arose after the split from orangutans (Ponginae). The Homininae cladogram has three main branches, which lead to gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos, and humans. There are several extant species of chimpanzees and gorillas, but only one human species remains, although traces of several hypothetical species have been found with dates as recent as 12,000 years ago (Homo floresiensis, Homo denisova). History of discoveries and classification[edit] Today, chimpanzees and gorillas live in tropical forests with acid soils that rarely preserve fossils. Taxonomic classification[edit] Homininae[5][6] Evolution[edit] Evolution of bipedalism[edit] Recent studies of Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 million years old) and Orrorin tugenensis (6 million years old) suggest some degree of bipedalism. Brain size evolution[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] Citations[edit]

Hominini Through DNA comparison, scientists believe the Pan / Homo divergence occurred between 5.4 and 6.3 million years ago, after an unusual process of speciation that ranged over 4 million years.[5] Few fossil specimens on the Pan side of the split have been found, the first fossil chimpanzee discovery being published in 2005,[6] dating to between 545 ± 3 kyr (thousand years) and 284 ± 12 kyr via Argon-argon dating, from Kenya's East African Rift Valley. All of the extinct genera listed in the table to the right are ancestral to Homo, or are offshoots of such. However, both Orrorin and Sahelanthropus existed around the time of the split, and so may be ancestral to all three extant species. In the proposal of Mann and Weiss (1996),[7] the tribe Hominini includes Pan as well as Homo, but within separate subtribes. Homo (and, by inference, all bipedal apes) is in the subtribe Hominina, while Pan is in the subtribe Panina. Wood (2010) discusses the different views of this taxonomy.[8]

Hominina Taxonomy[edit] See also[edit] List of human evolution fossils (with images) References[edit] Homo Homo is the genus of hominids that includes modern humans and species closely related to them. The genus is estimated to be about 2.3 to 2.4 million years old,[1][2] possibly having evolved from australopithecine ancestors, with the appearance of Homo habilis. Several species, including Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus africanus, and Australopithecus afarensis, have been proposed as the direct ancestor of the Homo lineage.[3][4] These species have morphological features that align them with Homo, but there is no consensus on which gave rise to Homo, assuming it was not an as-yet undiscovered species. The most salient physiological development between the earlier australopith species and Homo is the increase in cranial capacity, from about 450 cm3 (27 cu in) in A. garhi to 600 cm3 (37 cu in) in H. habilis. Homo sapiens (modern humans) is the only surviving species in the genus, all others having become extinct. Naming[edit] Species[edit] See also[edit]

Tetraodontidae Pufferfish are generally believed to be the second-most poisonous vertebrates in the world, after the golden poison frog. Certain internal organs, such as liver, and sometimes the skin, contain tetrodotoxin and are highly toxic to most animals when eaten; nevertheless, the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in Japan (as 河豚, pronounced as fugu), Korea (as 복 bok or 복어 bogeo ), and China (as 河豚 hétún) when prepared by specifically trained chefs who know which part is safe to eat and in what quantity. The Tetraodontidae contain at least 120 species of puffers in 19 genera.[1] They are most diverse in the tropics, relatively uncommon in the temperate zone, and completely absent from cold waters. Ecology and life history[edit] Although most species live in inshore and estuarine waters, 29 species spend their entire lifecycles in fresh water. Natural defenses[edit] The puffer's unique and distinctive natural defenses help compensate for its slow locomotion. Inflated Arothron

Human Humans began to practice sedentary agriculture about 12,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals which allowed for the growth of civilization. Humans subsequently established various forms of government, religion, and culture around the world, unifying people within a region and leading to the development of states and empires. The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the development of fuel-driven technologies and improved health, causing the human population to rise exponentially. By 2012 the global human population was estimated to be around 7 billion.[10][11] Etymology and definition In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo — anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the definition of "human" has changed with the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans. History Evolution and range Evidence from molecular biology

Tetraodontiformes Pan paniscus (Bonobo) The bonobo (/bəˈnoʊboʊ/ or /ˈbɒnəboʊ/), Pan paniscus, formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee,[3] is a great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee. Although the name "chimpanzee" is sometimes used to refer to both species together, it is usually understood as referring to the common chimpanzee, while Pan paniscus is usually referred to as the bonobo. It is distinguished by relatively long legs, pink lips, dark face and tail-tuft through adulthood, and parted long hair on its head. The bonobo is popularly known for its high levels of sexual behavior. Along with the common chimpanzee, the bonobo is the closest extant relative to humans. Etymology[edit] Despite the alternative common name "pygmy chimpanzee", the bonobo is not especially diminutive when compared to the common chimpanzee. Evolutionary history[edit] Fossils[edit] Taxonomy and phylogeny[edit] Female bonobo

Diprotodontia Pan Troglodytes (Common chimpanzee) The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape. Colloquially, the common chimpanzee is often called the chimpanzee (or "chimp"), though this term can be used to refer to both species in the genus Pan: the common chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo, formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing show both species of chimpanzees are the sister group to the modern human lineage. The common chimpanzee lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in much smaller groups during the day. The common chimpanzee is listed on the IUCN Red List as an endangered species. Etymology[edit] The English name chimpanzee came from a Bantu language of Angola.[7] Evolutionary history[edit] Despite a large number of Homo fossil finds, chimpanzee fossils (genus Pan) were not described until 2005. Taxonomy[edit] Physical description[edit] Ecology[edit] Behavior[edit]

Spiders Pan (Chimpanzee) Chimpanzees, sometimes colloquially chimp, are two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan. The Congo River divides the native habitats of the two species:[2] Chimpanzees are members of the family Hominidae, along with gorillas, humans, and orangutans. Evolutionary history Evolutionary relationship Fossils Though many human fossils have been found, chimpanzee fossils were not described until 2005. Anatomy and physiology Human and chimp skulls and brains (not to scale), as illustrated in Gervais' Histoire naturelle des mammifères The male common chimp stands up to 1.7 m (5.6 ft) high and weighs as much as 70 kg (150 lb); the female is somewhat smaller. Both the common chimpanzee and bonobo can walk upright on two legs when carrying objects with their hands and arms. Chimpanzee testicles are unusually large for their body size, with a combined weight of about 4 oz (110 g) compared to a gorilla's 1 oz (28 g) or a human's 1.5 ounces (43 g). Neoteny Behavior Bonobo Social structure Tool use