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Ecological economics

Ecological economics
Ecological economics/eco-economics refers to both a transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space.[1] It is distinguished from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment, by its treatment of the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem and its emphasis upon preserving natural capital.[2] One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought, with ecological economists emphasizing strong sustainability and rejecting the proposition that natural capital can be substituted by human-made capital.[3] Ecological economics was founded as a modern movement in the works of and interactions between various European and American academics (see the section on history and development below). History and development[edit] Nature and ecology[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_economics

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General Systems Theory © 1993, David S. Walonick, Ph.D. General systems theory was originally proposed by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1928. Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (/jʊŋ/; German: [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf jʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), often referred to as C. G. Jung, was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology.[2] Seeds of Doubt Early this spring, the Indian environmentalist Vandana Shiva led an unusual pilgrimage across southern Europe. Beginning in Greece, with the international Pan-Hellenic Exchange of Local Seed Varieties Festival, which celebrated the virtues of traditional agriculture, Shiva and an entourage of followers crossed the Adriatic and travelled by bus up the boot of Italy, to Florence, where she spoke at the Seed, Food and Earth Democracy Festival. After a short planning meeting in Genoa, the caravan rolled on to the South of France, ending in Le Mas d’Azil, just in time to celebrate International Days of the Seed. Shiva’s fiery opposition to globalization and to the use of genetically modified crops has made her a hero to anti-G.M.O. activists everywhere.

1960s "'60s" redirects here. For decades comprising years 60–70 of other centuries, see List of decades. Top, L-R: A soldier crawls on the ground during the Vietnam War; The Beatles, part of the British Invasion, change music in the United States and around the world. Centre, L-R: John F. How to Be Curious About the Green Revolution Social media is alive with folks’ thoughts on Michael Specter’s recent New Yorker piece. As the controversy fades, I worry that people will be left with three ideas. Vandana Shiva is unreliable therefore all critiques of GMOs are too.Farmer suicides aren’t about GMOs so we can stop worrying about them.The Green Revolution is worth repeating, because what we need to feed the world is yet another boost in food production. All three of these ideas ought to be banished from your mind.

Leonard Jimmie Savage Leonard Jimmie Savage (born Leonard Ogashevitz; 20 November 1917 – 1 November 1971) was an American mathematician and statistician. Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman said Savage was "one of the few people I have met whom I would unhesitatingly call a genius."[1]

The Mean-spirited and Empty Land of Giant Agriculture On May 26, 2013, a friend and I ventured into the alien world of the Imperial Valley of California where “farming” engulfs the Salton Sea. In the bright hot sun I struggled to make sense of endless stretches of arid land peppered by huge green fields irrigated by subsidized and imported water. I could not see any fences or borders or houses anywhere. Ditches sliced the infinite land. Energy hierarchy The Energy Hierarchy with the most favoured options at the top The Energy Hierarchy is a classification of energy options, prioritised to assist progress towards a more sustainable energy system. It is a similar approach to the waste hierarchy for minimising resource depletion, and adopts a parallel sequence. The highest priorities cover the prevention of unnecessary energy usage both through eliminating waste and improving energy efficiency. The sustainable production of energy resources is the next priority.

The Golden Age of Pesticides during the 1950s The Golden Age of Pesticides The 50s were the golden age of pesticides. But by the end of the 60s, the Golden Age had started to tarnish. In the 50s, new and amazing products were being discovered, quickly tested and introduced to farmers and the general public. Engel's law According to Engel's law, the share of income spent on food decreases, even as total food expenditure rises Engel's law is an observation in economics stating that as income rises, the proportion of income spent on food falls, even if actual expenditure on food rises. In other words, the income elasticity of demand of food is between 0 and 1.

Loss Of Biodiversity Biodiversity plays an important role in the way ecosystems function and in the many services they provide, including nutrients and water cycling, soil formation and retention, resistance against invasive species, pollination of plants, regulation of climate, as well as pest and pollution control by ecosystems. Biodiversity plays a crucial role in human nutrition through its influence on world food production, as it ensures the sustainable productivity of soils and provides the genetic resources for all crops, livestock, and marine species harvested for food. There is growing concern about the health consequences of biodiversity loss and change. Biodiversity loss can have significant direct human health impacts if ecosystem services are no longer adequate to meet social needs.

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