untitled Economic equilibrium In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change. For example, in the standard text-book model of perfect competition, equilibrium occurs at the point at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal. Market equilibrium in this case refers to a condition where a market price is established through competition such that the amount of goods or services sought by buyers is equal to the amount of goods or services produced by sellers. This price is often called the competitive price or market clearing price and will tend not to change unless demand or supply changes and the quantity is called "competitive quantity" or market clearing quantity. Properties of equilibrium Three basic properties of equilibrium in general have been proposed by Huw Dixon. These are: Example: The competitive equilibrium. See also
Ecosystem functioning and maximum entropy production: a quantitative test of hypotheses Circular economy A major argument in favour of the circular economy approach is that achieving a sustainable world does not require changes in the quality of life of consumers, nor does it require loss of revenues or extra costs for manufacturers and other economic agents. The argument is that circular business models can be as profitable as linear models and allow consumers to keep enjoying similar products and services. To achieve models that are economically and environmentally sustainable, the circular economy focuses on areas such as design thinking, systems thinking, product life extension, and recycling. Origins As early as 1966 Kenneth Boulding already raised awareness of an "open economy" with unlimited input resources and output sinks in contrast with a "closed economy", in which resources and sinks are tied and remain as long as possible a part of the economy. Other early schools of thought include Professor Walter R. Moving away from the linear model
General Systems Theory © 1993, David S. Walonick, Ph.D. General systems theory was originally proposed by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1928. Since Descartes, the "scientific method" had progressed under two related assumptions. A system could be broken down into its individual components so that each component could be analyzed as an independent entity, and the components could be added in a linear fashion to describe the totality of the system. Von Bertalanffy proposed that both assumptions were wrong. One common element of all systems is described by Kuhn. Systems can be either controlled (cybernetic) or uncontrolled. Kuhn's model stresses that the role of decision is to move a system towards equilibrium. The study of systems can follow two general approaches. There are three general approaches for evaluating subsystems. Descartes and Locke both believed that words were composed of smaller building blocks. Kuhn's terminology is interlocking and mutually consistent. Term Definition Chaos Theory
Economic system Among existing economic systems, distinctive methods of analysis have developed, such as socialist economics and Islamic economic jurisprudence. Today the dominant form of economic organization at the global level is based on market-oriented mixed economies. Economic systems is the category in the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes that includes the study of such systems. One field that cuts across them is comparative economic systems. Subcategories of different systems there include: planning, coordination, and reformproductive enterprises; factor and product markets; prices; populationpublic economics; financial economicsnational income, product, and expenditure; money; inflationinternational trade, finance, investment, and aidconsumer economics; welfare and povertyperformance and prospectsnatural resources; energy; environment; regional studiespolitical economy; legal institutions; property rights. Components Types Capitalism Mixed economy
Figure 3 : Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks : Nature The three examples given here are crucial processes in the ecosystem, shown in simplified form. a, Potential interactions between microbial metabolism and the physics of permafrost thawing and carbon release. b, The 'microbial priming effect'. An increase in carbon and energy sources easily utilized by microbes can stimulate the decomposition of 'old' soil carbon, especially in grassland soils. In the context of climate change this effect may have a positive-feedback effect on CO2 increase and global warming. c, Interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles shown here could alter expected ecosystem carbon responses to the prevailing trend of climate change. Pink arrows denote effects of terrestrial ecosystems on climate, orange arrows denote effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, and black arrows denote interactions within ecosystems. The background image is a world map of soil organic carbon.
Most Downloaded Ecological Economics Articles The most downloaded articles from Ecological Economics in the last 90 days. Safa Motesharrei | Jorge Rivas | Eugenia Kalnay Serenella Sala | Biagio Ciuffo | Peter Nijkamp Jouni Korhonen | Antero Honkasalo | Jyri Seppälä Kang-Soek Lee | Richard A. David Pimentel | Rodolfo Zuniga | Doug Morrison Yannis Dafermos | Maria Nikolaidi | Giorgos Galanis Rudolf S de Groot | Matthew A Wilson | Roelof M.J Boumans Per Bolund | Sven Hunhammar Fredrik Moberg | Carl Folke M.M.G.T. Erik Gómez-Baggethun | David N. M. Julian Kirchherr | Laura Piscicelli | Ruben Bour | Erica Kostense-Smit | Jennifer Muller | Anne Huibrechtse-Truijens | Marko Hekkert Brendan Fisher | R. Nicola Gallai | Jean-Michel Salles | Josef Settele | Bernard E. Joan Martínez-Alier | Unai Pascual | Franck-Dominique Vivien | Edwin Zaccai Jasper O. Erik Gómez-Baggethun | Rudolf de Groot | Pedro L. M.S. Dominik Wiedenhofer | Tomer Fishman | Christian Lauk | Willi Haas | Fridolin Krausmann
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (/jʊŋ/; German: [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf jʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), often referred to as C. G. Jung, was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the collective unconscious, archetypes, and extraversion and introversion. His work has been influential not only in psychiatry but also in philosophy, anthropology, archeology, literature, and religious studies. He was a prolific writer, though many of his works were not published until after his death. The central concept of analytical psychology is individuation—the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy. Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development. Early years Childhood family Jung's mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment.
Gift economy A gift economy, gift culture or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. In contrast to a barter economy or a market economy, social norms and custom govern gift exchange, rather than an explicit exchange of goods or services for money or some other commodity. According to anthropologists Maurice Bloch and Jonathan Parry, it is the unsettled relationship between market and non-market exchange that attracts the most attention. Gift economies are said, by some, to build communities, and that the market serves as an acid on those relationships. Principles of gift exchange Property and alienability Gift-giving is a form of transfer of property rights over particular objects. Gift vs prestation A Kula bracelet from the Trobriand Islands. Inalienable possessions Reciprocity and the "spirit of the gift" Charity, debt, and the 'poison of the gift'
Silvoarable | The Agroforestry Research Trust In Silvoarable systems agricultural or horticultural crops are grown simultaneously with a long-term tree crop to provide annual income while the tree crop matures. Trees are grown in rows with wide alleys in-between for cultivating crops. Intercropping & Alley cropping Alley component: Any arable or horticultural crop is possible. Tree component: may be timber or fuelwood trees, or a fruit or nut crop. For more information on tree species choice in Britain, see Selecting timber tree species. Fruit crops can be used as the tree component. Nut crops can include walnuts, chestnuts and hazelnuts. Silvoarable agroforestry experiment with poplar and barley in Bedfordshire in 2002 Design & establishment Tree rows are spaced at a minimum of 10-14 m apart to allow enough room for cultivation operations. Weed control is essential. Benefits Wood or tree products are produced in addition to agronomic crops, with no reduction in crop yields per unit area for many years. Drawbacks