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Ecological economics

Ecological economics
Ecological economics/eco-economics refers to both a transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space.[1] It is distinguished from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment, by its treatment of the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem and its emphasis upon preserving natural capital.[2] One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought, with ecological economists emphasizing strong sustainability and rejecting the proposition that natural capital can be substituted by human-made capital.[3] Ecological economics was founded as a modern movement in the works of and interactions between various European and American academics (see the section on history and development below). History and development[edit] Nature and ecology[edit] Related:  Thesis - Exploration of Value

untitled Restoration ecology Recently constructed wetland regeneration in Australia, on a site previously used for agriculture Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in ecology in the 1980s. It is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action. The term "restoration ecology" is therefore commonly used for the academic study of the process, whereas the term "ecological restoration" is commonly used for the actual project or process by restoration practitioners. Definition[edit] E. History[edit] Restoration needs[edit] On a more anthropocentric level, natural ecosystems provide human society with food, fuel and timber. Conservation biology and restoration ecology[edit] With regard to biodiversity preservation, it should be noted that restoration activities are not a substitute, but are complementary for conservation efforts.

Ecosystem functioning and maximum entropy production: a quantitative test of hypotheses Civics Government[edit] On smaller scales, modern human development theory attempts to unify ethics and small-scale politics with the urban and rural economies of sustainable development. Notable theorists including Jane Jacobs and Carol Moore argue that political secession of either cities or distinct bio regions and cultures is an essential pre-requisite to applying any widely shared ethics, as the ethical views of urban and rural people, different cultures or those engaged in different types of agriculture, are irreconcilably different. This extreme advocacy of decentralization is hardly uncommon, and leads to the minimal theory of civics – anarchism. Civics refers not to the ethical or moral or political basis by which a ruler acquires power, but only to the processes and procedures they follow in actually exercising it. Recently, the concept of global civics has also been suggested as a way of applying civics in the highly interdependent and globalized world of the 21st century.

General Systems Theory © 1993, David S. Walonick, Ph.D. General systems theory was originally proposed by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1928. Since Descartes, the "scientific method" had progressed under two related assumptions. A system could be broken down into its individual components so that each component could be analyzed as an independent entity, and the components could be added in a linear fashion to describe the totality of the system. Von Bertalanffy proposed that both assumptions were wrong. One common element of all systems is described by Kuhn. Systems can be either controlled (cybernetic) or uncontrolled. Kuhn's model stresses that the role of decision is to move a system towards equilibrium. The study of systems can follow two general approaches. There are three general approaches for evaluating subsystems. Descartes and Locke both believed that words were composed of smaller building blocks. Kuhn's terminology is interlocking and mutually consistent. Term Definition Chaos Theory

Environmental engineering Environmental Engineering is the integration of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate pollution sites.[citation needed] Furthermore, it is concerned with finding plausible solutions in the field of public health, such as arthropod-borne diseases, implementing law which promote adequate sanitation in urban, rural and recreational areas. It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects. Environmental engineers study the effect of technological advances on the environment. Most jurisdictions also impose licensing and registration requirements. Development[edit] Scope[edit] The U.S.

Figure 3 : Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks : Nature The three examples given here are crucial processes in the ecosystem, shown in simplified form. a, Potential interactions between microbial metabolism and the physics of permafrost thawing and carbon release. b, The 'microbial priming effect'. An increase in carbon and energy sources easily utilized by microbes can stimulate the decomposition of 'old' soil carbon, especially in grassland soils. In the context of climate change this effect may have a positive-feedback effect on CO2 increase and global warming. c, Interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles shown here could alter expected ecosystem carbon responses to the prevailing trend of climate change. Pink arrows denote effects of terrestrial ecosystems on climate, orange arrows denote effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, and black arrows denote interactions within ecosystems. The background image is a world map of soil organic carbon.

Progressive Era Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-09 (left), William Howard Taft, 1909-13 (center), and Woodrow Wilson, 1913-21 (right) are often referred to as the "Progressive Presidents"; their administrations saw intense social and political change in American society. Initially the movement operated chiefly at local levels; later it expanded to state and national levels. Progressives drew support from the middle class, and supporters included many lawyers, teachers, physicians, ministers and business people.[7] The Progressives strongly supported scientific methods as applied to economics, government, industry, finance, medicine, schooling, theology, education, and even the family. Political reform[edit] "The Awakening" Suffragists were successful in the West; their torch awakens the women struggling in the East and South in this cartoon by Hy Mayer in Puck Feb. 20, 1915 Exposing corruption[edit] Modernization[edit] The Progressives were avid modernizers. Women[edit] Woman suffrage[edit]

Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (/jʊŋ/; German: [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf jʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), often referred to as C. G. Jung, was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology.[2] Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the collective unconscious, archetypes, and extraversion and introversion. His work has been influential not only in psychiatry but also in philosophy, anthropology, archeology, literature, and religious studies. He was a prolific writer, though many of his works were not published until after his death. The central concept of analytical psychology is individuation—the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy.[3] Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development.[4] Early years[edit] Childhood family[edit] Jung's mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment.

Integrated geography Environmental geography (also, integrative geography,[1] or integrated geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment,[2] so-called coupled human–environment systems. Origins[edit] It requires an understanding of the dynamics of geology, meteorology, hydrology, biogeography, ecology, and geomorphology, as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment (cultural geography). Thus, to a certain degree, it may be seen as a successor of Physische Anthropogeographie (English: "physical anthropogeography")—a term coined by the Vienna Geographer Albrecht Penck in 1924—and geographical cultural or human ecology (Harlan H. Barrows 1923). Focus[edit] References[edit]

Silvoarable | The Agroforestry Research Trust In Silvoarable systems agricultural or horticultural crops are grown simultaneously with a long-term tree crop to provide annual income while the tree crop matures. Trees are grown in rows with wide alleys in-between for cultivating crops. Intercropping & Alley cropping Alley component: Any arable or horticultural crop is possible. Tree component: may be timber or fuelwood trees, or a fruit or nut crop. For more information on tree species choice in Britain, see Selecting timber tree species. Fruit crops can be used as the tree component. Nut crops can include walnuts, chestnuts and hazelnuts. Silvoarable agroforestry experiment with poplar and barley in Bedfordshire in 2002 Design & establishment Tree rows are spaced at a minimum of 10-14 m apart to allow enough room for cultivation operations. Weed control is essential. Benefits Wood or tree products are produced in addition to agronomic crops, with no reduction in crop yields per unit area for many years. Drawbacks