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City-state in ancient Greece Coordinates: Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which were supposedly introduced by the semi-mythical legislator Lycurgus. His laws configured the Spartan society to maximize military proficiency at all costs, focusing all social institutions on military training and physical development. The inhabitants of Sparta were stratified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens with full rights), mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans), perioikoi (free residents engaged in commerce), and helots (state-owned serfs, enslaved non-Spartan locals). Spartan men underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanx brigades were widely considered to be among the best in battle. Sparta was frequently a subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in Western culture following the revival of classical learning. Sparta had a double effect on Greek thought: through the reality, and through the myth....

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Peisistratos Peisistratos (Greek: Πεισίστρατος; died 528/7 BC), Latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC.[2] His legacy lies primarily in his instituting the Panathenaic Games, historically assigned the date of 566 B.C., and the consequent first attempt at producing a definitive version of the Homeric epics. Peisistratos' championing of the lower class of Athens, the Hyperakrioi, (see below) is an early example of populism. While in power, Peisistratos did not hesitate to confront the aristocracy, and he greatly reduced their privileges, confiscated their lands and gave them to the poor, and funded many religious and artistic programs.[3] Peisistratus was a one-time brother-in-law of Cleisthenes;[4] however, Peisistratus was much older. Rise[edit] Illustration from 1838 by M.

Calydon Greek city in ancient Aetolia The Laphrion sanctuary plateau of Calydon with Varasova mountain on the background. Calydon or Kalydon (; Ancient Greek: Καλυδών) was a Greek city in ancient Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles (approx. 11 km) from the sea.[1] Its name is most famous today for the Calydonian Boar that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age. Mythology[edit]

Aporia In philosophy, an aporia (Ancient Greek: ᾰ̓πορῐ́ᾱ, romanized: aporíā, lit. 'impasse, difficulty in passage, lack of resources, puzzlement') is a puzzle or state of puzzlement. In rhetoric, it is a declaration of doubt, made for rhetorical purpose and often feigned. Definitions[edit] Definitions of the term aporia have varied throughout history. The Oxford English Dictionary includes two forms of the word: the adjective "aporetic", which it defines as "to be at a loss", "impassable", and "inclined to doubt, or to raise objections"; and the noun form "aporia", which it defines as the "state of the aporetic" and "a perplexity or difficulty".

Pythia Priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi Nevertheless, details of how the Pythia operated are missing as authors from the classical period (6th to 4th centuries BC) treat the process as common knowledge with no need to explain. Those who discussed the oracle in any detail are from 1st century BC to 4th century AD and give conflicting stories.[5] One of the main stories claimed that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapours rising from a chasm in the rock, and that she spoke gibberish which priests interpreted as the enigmatic prophecies and turned them into poetic dactylic hexameters preserved in Greek literature.[6] This idea, however, has been challenged by scholars such as Joseph Fontenrose and Lisa Maurizio, who argue that the ancient sources uniformly represent the Pythia speaking intelligibly, and giving prophecies in her own voice.[7] Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BC describes the Pythia speaking in dactylic hexameters.[8][9] G.L. Notes[edit]

Aetolia Region of Ancient Greece Aetolia (Greek: Αἰτωλία, romanized: Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. Geography[edit] The Achelous River separates Aetolia from Acarnania to the west; on the north it had boundaries with Epirus and Thessaly; on the east with the Ozolian Locrians; and on the south the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf defined the limits of Aetolia. Thrasymachus Life, date, and career[edit] Aristophanes makes what is the most precisely dateable of references to Thrasymachus, in a passing joke from a lost play dated to 427 BCE.[1] Nils Rauhut of the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy concludes from this passage that Thrasymachus must have been teaching in Athens for several years before this point.[2] A fragment from Clement of Alexandria provides some further context by contrasting Thrasymachus with the Macedonian Archelaus. "And while Euripides says in the Telephus, 'Shall we who are Greeks be slaves to barbarians?', Thrasymachus says in his speech For the People of Larisa, 'Shall we become slaves to Archelaus, Greeks as we are, to a barbarian?'" Dionysius of Halicarnassus praises Thrasymachus for various rhetorical skills in his On Isaeus, finding Thrasymachus "pure, subtle, and inventive and able, according as he wishes, to speak either with terseness or with an abundance of words." Fragment 1[edit]

Adrastus Ancient Greek mythological king of Argos Adrastus (; Ancient Greek: Ἄδραστος Adrastos) or Adrestus (Ionic: Ἄδρηστος Adrēstos), traditionally translated as 'inescapable',[1] was a legendary king of Argos during the war of the Seven Against Thebes. Family[edit] Mythology[edit] According to Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece by Edward E.

Laocoön Trojan priest in Greek and Roman mythology Laocoön (;[1][2][Note 1] Ancient Greek: Λαοκόων, IPA: [laokóɔːn]), the son of Acoetes, is a figure in Greek and Roman mythology and the Epic Cycle.[3] He was a Trojan priest who was attacked, with his two sons, by giant serpents sent by the gods. The story of Laocoön has been the subject of numerous artists, both in ancient and in more contemporary times. Death[edit] Cephalus Cephalus (; Ancient Greek: Κέφαλος Kephalos means "head"[citation needed]) is a name, used both for the hero-figure in Greek mythology and carried as a theophoric name by historical persons. Mythological Historical See also[edit] List of commonly used taxonomic affixes Notes[edit]

Oeneus Oeneus was a king of the area of Calydon in Greek mythology, son of King Porthaon and Queen Euryte. He married Althaea, with whom he had a number of children, including Deianeira, Meleager, Toxeus, Clymenus, Periphas, Gorge, Eurymede, Perimede and Melanippe. When Artemis sent a huge boar, called the Calydonian Boar, in his lands to ravage them because he had forgotten to honour the goddess, Oeneus asked his son Meleager to gather a party of heroes to kill the creature. The party consisted of Meleager, Atalanta, and Meleager's uncles; Atalanta played a major role in successfully hunting down and killing the boar. When the time came to give the boar's skin as a prize, Meleager gave it to Atalanta, despite the protests of his uncles who believed it should be theirs by right of birth.

Polemarchus Polemarchus or Polemarch (; Greek: Πολέμαρχος; 5th century – 404 BCE) was an ancient Athenian philosopher from the Piraeus. Life[edit] The son of Cephalus of Syracuse, Polemarchus had two brothers, the famous orator Lysias[1] and Euthydemus, and a sister who married Brachyllus. Polemarchus and Lysias traveled to Thurii when the latter was 15 years old.[2]