History of computing hardware The History of computing hardware covers the developments from simple devices to aid calculation, to mechanical calculators, punched card data processing and on to modern stored-program computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations were called "calculating machines", by proprietary names, or even as they are now, calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. The slide rule and, later, analog computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Early devices Ancient era Suanpan (the number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408) The abacus was early used for arithmetic tasks. A slide rule
TidBITS: Apple news for the rest of us Classroom 2.0 Italian Food Forever - Italian Recipes! Alan Turing Scrapbook - Who invented the computer? Even when they turned to electronics, builders of calculators still thought of programs as something quite different from numbers, and stored them in quite a different, inflexible, way. So the ENIAC, started in 1943, was a massive electronic calculating machine, but I would not call it a computer in the modern sense, though some people do. This page shows how it took a square root — incredibly inefficiently. Colossus The Colossus was also started in 1943 at Bletchley Park, heart of the British attack on German ciphers (see this Scrapbook page.) I wouldn't call it a computer either, though some people do: it was a machine specifically for breaking the "Fish" ciphers, although by 1945 the programming had become very sophisticated and flexible. But the Colossus was crucial in showing Alan Turing the speed and reliability of electronics. 1996 saw the fiftieth anniversary of the ENIAC.
AppleInsider | Apple Insider News and Analysis 125 Social Bookmarking Sites : Importance of User Generated Tags Editor’s Note: This post was updated in October of 2016. Is social bookmarking still relevant in 2016? Read this updated post by Anna Crowe to learn more. The positive effects of social bookmarking for publishers of news sites, blogs, and other websites are outstanding. Social bookmarking can introduce sites to others with relevant tastes and drive traffic and valuable backlinks to your site. Some social bookmark sites pass on link juice, while some use the NoFollow attribute. The Benefits of Social Bookmarking The external metadata compiled via user-generated descriptions, tags, titles and categorization is incredibly valuable to search engines, as in the same philosophy as anchored backlinks, descriptive content about a web site defined by the users of that site who are not associated with the marketing or coding of that site, can be extremely powerful in gauging the importance and relevance of the content and tags which are used on that site. Image Credits: Featured Image: Deposit Photos
Gelati and Sorbetti - Ice Creams and Sherbets To Cool the Heated Breast In The Art of Eating Well Pellegrino Artusi, the late dean of Italian gastronomes, says that the "art of chilling" was invented by the Italians, and notes that the ice creams Caterina de'Medici's Florentine chefs served the Parisian court in the 1530s caused considerable sensation. One can easily understand why; there's nothing quite so refreshing on a hot summer day as a bowl of ice cream or sherbet, nor are there better ways to close a summer dinner with friends. Il Re dei Cuochi, published anonymously in 1885, doesn't discuss the origins of ice cream, but does give lots of recipes, and also tells how to make fruit syrups so you'll be able to make your favorite ice creams and sherbets when the necessary ingredients are out of season: To make fruit ice creams when the necessary fruits are unavailable, one should plan ahead, gathering the juices of the fruit that works best in making these preparations. Of course one still had to muck with ice and salt, and turn the crank. The Milk.
History of IBM International Business Machines, abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software (with a focus on the latter), and offers infrastructure services, hosting services, and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. Ginni Rometty is the president and CEO of IBM. Chronology 1880s–1924: The origin of IBM Tabulating Machine Company plant in 1893. The roots of IBM date back to the 1880s, decades before the development of electronic computers. Based in New York City, the new company had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto, Ontario. Key events The U.S.
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