background preloader

Cell Structure

Cell Structure
All living organisms on Earth are divided into cells. The main concept of cell theory is that cells are the basic structural unit for all organisms. Cells are small compartments that hold the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful. Living things may be single-celled or they may be very complex such as a human being. There are smaller pieces that make up cells such as macromolecules and organelles. A protein is an example of a macromolecule while a mitochondrion is an example of an organelle. In larger organisms, the main purpose of a cell is to organize. If you were only made of one cell, you would be very limited. There are many types of cells. Plant cells are easier to identify because they have a protective structure called a cell wall made of cellulose. Cells are unique to each type of organism. Humans have hundreds of different cell types. Related:  CellsCell Review Websites

Cells early 12c., "small monastery, subordinate monastery" (from Medieval Latin in this sense), later "small room for a monk or a nun in a monastic establishment; a hermit's dwelling" (c.1300), from Latin cella "small room, store room, hut," related to Latin celare "to hide, conceal." The Latin word represents PIE root *kel- "conceal" (cf. Sanskrit cala "hut, house, hall;" Greek kalia "hut, nest," kalyptein "to cover," koleon "sheath," kelyphos "shell, husk;" Latin clam "secret;" Old Irish cuile "cellar," celim "hide," Middle Irish cul "defense, shelter;" Gothic hulistr "covering," Old English heolstor "lurking-hole, cave, covering," Gothic huljan "cover over," hulundi "hole," hilms "helmet," halja "hell," Old English hol "cave," holu "husk, pod"). Sense of monastic rooms extended to prison rooms (1722). Electric battery sense is from 1828, based on original form.

Cells Seeing the word cell triggers so many memories. You may recall your last dropped call, solar panels, your current Fantasy Baseball spreadsheet, or your last school field trip to the local penitentiary. No? All living things (we like to call them organisms because no one wants to be called a "thing") have five characteristics in common. The Five Basic Attributes of Life, Round Two Complexity and organization. (If you are totally confused right now, it probably means you need to go back to our handy dandy little intro unit. Cells live and behave in a variety of ways. Other cells are able to grow and reproduce without the services of other cells. There are two major types of cells: Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells While both types of cells have some attributes in common, we usually focus on the differences (glass-half-empty theory), like the fact that eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Cell Biology Games, Virtual Labs, Activities Cells All living things are made of cells! Learn how they work and what they are made of! Cell organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, lysosomes and many more can be found here. You'll be amazed at what happens in each of your cells! Cell Biology Video Games, Virtual Labs & Activities Cell Explorer: The Animal Cell Explore the microscopic world of the cell in your mini ship! Cell Defense: The Plasma Membrane The only barrier between the cell and the dangers of the outside world is the plasma membrane. Check out the Worksheet that goes along with the game (courtesy of Ms. CellCraft Build a cell and learn about the organelles and processes that make cells work! Cells Quizzes Test your knowledge of Cell Biology!

What is a cell? Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. Cells also contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of themselves. Cells have many parts, each with a different function. Cytoplasm (illustration) Within cells, the cytoplasm is made up of a jelly-like fluid (called the cytosol) and other structures that surround the nucleus. Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a network of long fibers that make up the cell’s structural framework. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (illustration) This organelle helps process molecules created by the cell. Golgi apparatus (illustration) The Golgi apparatus packages molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to be transported out of the cell. Lysosomes and peroxisomes (illustration) These organelles are the recycling center of the cell. Next: What is DNA?

Cell Parts | ASU - Ask A Biologist Do All Cells Look the Same? Cells come in many shapes and sizes. Some cells are covered by a cell wall, other are not, some have slimy coats or elongated structures that push and pull them through their environment. Some cells have a thick layer surrounding their cell. This layer is called the capsule and is found in bacteria cells. In our body there are many different kinds of cells. What Are the Parts of the Cell? Have you ever wondered what the inside of a cell looks like? Plant and animal cells have many of the same organelles.

Cell Parts Definitions The nucleus is where the DNA is kept and RNA is transcribed. RNA is moved out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores. Proteins needed inside the nucleus are transported in through the nuclear pores. The nucleolus is usually visible as a dark spot in the nucleus, and is the location of ribosome formation. Ribosomes are where RNA is translated into protein. The endoplasmic reticulum is the transport system for molecules needed for certain changes and specific destinations, instead of molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm. The lysosome is the digestive system in the cell. The cell membrane functions as a semi-permeable barrier, allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of organically produced chemicals inside the cell. The cytoplasm was defined earlier as the material between the plasma membrane (cell membrane) and the nuclear envelope. Microtubules function in cell division and serve as a "temporary scaffolding" for other organelles.

Plant Cell Anatomy Advertisement. is a user-supported site. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. (Already a member? Click here.) The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of plant cell anatomy terms. amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch. Related Pages: Parts of a Plant Cell Parts of a Plant Cell Click on a cell part to learn what it does! Back to the PlantQuest Process Page Cell Wall The cell wall is a rigid structure outside the cell membrane that supports and protects the cell (for plants, fungi, and some protists and bacteria). The cell wall is made of tough cellulose fibers and other materials made by the cell. Back to the top Cell Membrane The cell membrane is a structure that forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into and out of the cell. Food, oxygen and water move into the cell through the membrane. Golgi Bodies In cells, structures called Golgi Bodies are stacks of membrane-covered sacs that package and move proteins to the outside of the cell. Vacuole Membrane This is the thin layer that separates the vacuole from the cytoplasm. Vacuole Within a cell, a vacuole fills a role similar to a suitcase; as a temporary storage space for the cell. Vacuoles store water, food, pigments, waste or other materials. Nucleus Cytoplasm

Animal Cell Anatomy Advertisement. is a user-supported site. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. (Already a member? The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms: cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. Related Pages: Spongelab | Build-A-Cell Overview Build-A-Cell is a drag and drop game to teach students about the organelles and organelle substructures within a plant, animal, bacterial, and fungal cell. How to play Build-a-Cell 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Teaching with Build-a-Cell Build-a-Cell is an awesome tool to introduce and teach concepts of cellular biology.