BBC ON THIS DAY | 9 | 1945: Atom bomb hits Nagasaki 1945: Atom bomb hits Nagasaki American forces have dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki - the second such attack on Japan in three days. The bomb was dropped by parachute from an American B29 Bomber at 1102 local time. It exploded about 1,625 ft (500m) above the ground and is believed to have completely destroyed the city, which is situated on the western side of the Japanese island of Kyushu. In a statement issued from Guam, General Carl A Spaatz, Commander of the US Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific, said: "The second use of the atomic bomb occurred at noon, August 9, at Nagasaki. "Crew members report good results. Important port American airmen flying many miles from Nagasaki have said smoke from fires in the city was rising 50,000ft (15,240m). Nagasaki is one of Japan's most important ports providing vital access to and from Shanghai. Three days ago a similar device was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Japan's largest island, Honshu.
Hiroshima Hiroshima (広島市, Hiroshima-shi?) ( listen ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It is best known as the first city in history to be targeted by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II. The city's name, 広島, means "Wide Island" in Japanese. Hiroshima gained city status on April 1, 1889. History Sengoku period (1589–1871) Hiroshima was founded on the river delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by the powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto, who made it his capital after leaving Kōriyama Castle in Aki Province. Hiroshima Castle was quickly built, and in 1593 Terumoto moved in. Imperial period (1871–1939) Hiroshima Commercial Museum 1915 Map of Hiroshima City in the 1930s (Japanese edition) World War II and Nuclear Bombing (1939–1945) Hiroshima after the bombing
Good afternoon world/ Guten Tag Welt I had planned to tell you about the Independent Foreign Fiction Prize Readers Day today but my mind is still sleeping somehow and writing the blog post just dragged along today. I still have to do the German translation so I decided to leave the post for tomorrow which gives me the advantage that I can also write about the winner which will be announced tonight. I can't wait to find out. The whole day was so full of inspiration and information that I will do a week of writing about translated fiction next week to just use a minimum of what was in there :-). For today I wish all of you a mysterious and successful week and hope to hear from you one way or the other. Take care! Keith Harris speaking about the Hepworth Reading Groups experience of shadowing the Independent Foreign Fiction Prize photo credit: me, myself and I Achtung der Link in diesem Beitrag ist in englischer Sprache
Jonestown Coordinates: Jonestown Georgetown Kaituma Peoples Temple Agricultural Project ("Jonestown", Guyana) "Jonestown" was the informal name for the Peoples Temple Agricultural Project formed by the Peoples Temple, an American religious organization under the leadership of Jim Jones, in northwestern Guyana. A total of 909 Americans died in Jonestown, all but two from apparent cyanide poisoning, in an event termed "revolutionary suicide" by Jones and some members on an audio tape of the event and in prior discussions. The actions in Jonestown have been commonly viewed as mass suicide, although some sources, including Jonestown survivors, regard them as mass murder instead. It was the largest such event in modern history and resulted in the largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until September 11, 2001. In recent years, the Jonestown massacre has been the subject of several conspiracy theories. Origins Some of the Peoples Temple California locations
Manhattan Project Two types of atomic bomb were developed during the war. A relatively simple gun-type fission weapon was made using uranium-235, an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. Since it is chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, and has almost the same mass, it proved difficult to separate. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment: electromagnetic, gaseous and thermal. The project was also charged with gathering intelligence on the German nuclear energy project. The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test, conducted at New Mexico's Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on 16 July 1945. The Manhattan Project operated under a blanket of tight security, but Soviet atomic spies still penetrated the program. Origins In August 1939, prominent physicists Leó Szilárd and Eugene Wigner drafted the Einstein–Szilárd letter, which warned of the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type".
BBC ON THIS DAY | 6 | 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima The first atomic bomb has been dropped by a United States aircraft on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. President Harry S Truman, announcing the news from the cruiser, USS Augusta, in the mid-Atlantic, said the device was more than 2,000 times more powerful than the largest bomb used to date. An accurate assessment of the damage caused has so far been impossible due to a huge cloud of impenetrable dust covering the target. The bomb was dropped from an American B-29 Superfortress, known as Enola Gay, at 0815 local time. The President said the atomic bomb heralded the "harnessing of the basic power of the universe". President Truman went on to warn the Japanese the Allies would completely destroy their capacity to make war. The Potsdam declaration issued 10 days ago, which called for the unconditional surrender of Japan, was a last chance for the country to avoid utter destruction, the President said.
Nagasaki Nagasaki (長崎市, Nagasaki-shi?) ( During World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack. As of January 1, 2009, the city has an estimated population of 446,007 and a population density of 1,100 persons per km². The total area is 406.35 km². History Medieval and early modern eras A small fishing village secluded by harbours, Nagasaki had little historical significance until contact with Portuguese explorers in 1543. Soon after Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with mainland China, with whom Japan had previously severed its commercial and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving Wokou piracy in the South China Sea, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries. Modern era
JukePop: Metallic Criminology: A faint glimmer of metal by Stuart Bedlam "It all begin with a turn of a screw," said the olive-colored man. Atop his platform, the dark-skinned speaker continued with his nonsensical theories to the audience below, twisting his neck, and causing it to crack and pop as if his entire head were about to fall apart in chunks. This he followed with a few, albeit transparent, suicide threats. In all his years of public speaking, Fanzer Stip had learned to employ a variety of devices to either keep his audiences awake, or from walking away in boredom. "And because of the fatty acid build-up," went the theory still, "so common in the structure of the human body, the metallic devils are able to remain hidden to make evil in relative privacy." "AND THE FUNGI COUNT THIS EVENING," the bio zone engineer rattled on, "WILL RANGE IN THE TOP QUARTERS, BEATING LAST WEEK'S RECORD..." Sweating as though a waterfall and not a man, Fanzer shook his head to clear the memories this thing before him had stirred.
NKVD prisoner massacres Process With the invasion of Russia by German forces, the NKVD was responsible for evacuating prisons in the occupied regions. More than 140,000 prisoners were successfully evacuated by the NKVD. The massacres The NKVD and the Red Army killed prisoners in many places from Poland (e.g. Entrance to memorial in Piatykhatky Katyn-Kharkiv memorial Belarus Hrodna (Grodno): on June 22, the NKVD executed several dozen people at the local prison. Estonia Tartu: on July 9, 1941, almost 250 detainees were shot in Tartu prison and the Gray House courtyard; their bodies were dumped in makeshift graves and in the prison well.Kautla massacre: on July 24, 1941 the Red Army killed more than 20 civilians and burnt their farms. Latvia Litene: On June 14, 1941, 120 Latvian Army officers were driven to the woods in the belief they were on a training mission. Lithuania Poland Ukraine Russia See also Notes and references
Surrender of Japan On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. Late in the evening of August 8, 1945, in accordance with the Yalta agreements, but in violation of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, and soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, the Soviet Union invaded the Imperial Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Later that same day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb, this time on the city of Nagasaki. The combined shock of these events caused Emperor Hirohito to intervene and order the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War to accept the terms the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration for ending the war. After several more days of behind-the-scenes negotiations and a failed coup d'état, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address across the Empire on August 15. In the radio address, called the Gyokuon-hōsō ("Jewel Voice Broadcast"), he announced the surrender of Japan to the Allies.
The Decision to Drop the Bomb Winston Churchill, Harry Truman, and Josef Stalin meet at the Potsdam Conference. They discussed the post-war order and peace treaty issues. America had the bomb. Now what? When Harry Truman learned of the success of the Manhattan Project, he knew he was faced with a decision of unprecedented gravity. American soldiers and civilians were weary from four years of war, yet the Japanese military was refusing to give up their fight. A "mushroom" cloud rises over the city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, following the detonation of "Fat Man." For Truman, the choice whether or not to use the atomic bomb was the most difficult decision of his life. First, an Allied demand for an immediate unconditional surrender was made to the leadership in Japan. Regardless, on August 6, 1945, a plane called the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. AJ Software & Multimedia This map shows the range of the destruction caused by the atomic bomb dropped over Hiroshima.