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Cracking the Code of Life

Cracking the Code of Life
Cracking the Code of Life PBS Airdate: April 17, 2001 ROBERT KRULWICH: When I look at this—and these are the three billion chemical letters, instructions for a human being—my eyes glaze over. But when scientist Eric Lander looks at this he sees stories. ERIC LANDER (Whitehead Institute/MIT): The genome is a storybook that's been edited for a couple billion years. And you could take it to bed like A Thousand and One Arabian Nights, and read a different story in the genome every night. ROBERT KRULWICH: This is the story of one of the greatest scientific adventures ever, and at the heart of it is a small, very powerful molecule, DNA. For the past ten years, scientists all over the world have been painstakingly trying to read the tiny instructions buried inside our DNA. J. ROBERT KRULWICH: And what it's telling us is so surprising and so strange and so unexpected. ERIC LANDER: How different are you from a banana? ERIC LANDER: You may feel different... ROBERT KRULWICH: I eat a banana. We asked Dr.

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Genetic pedigrees In these diagrams, people are represented by symbols, usually circles for female and squares for male, and the bottom line represents the children of the couple above. For simplicity, 4 offspring are shown in these examples. However, in practice the number, proportion and order of birth are likely to vary. Obviously, the same technique of family trees can be used to show the results of animal breeding. It is customary to use dark symbols to indicate someone affected with a genetic condition, and unfilled symbols for those who are unaffected. In the explanations that follow, an intermediate grey colour is used to assist in understanding the effect of a heterozygote carrier.

How DNA Was Discovered A Scientific Breakthrough The sentence "This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest" may be one of science's most famous understatements. It appeared in April 1953 in the scientific paper where James Watson and Francis Crick presented the structure of the DNA-helix, the molecule that carries genetic information from one generation to the other. Nine years later, in 1962, they shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Maurice Wilkins, for solving one of the most important of all biological riddles. DNA from the Beginning - An animated primer of 75 experiments that made modern genetics. DNA from the Beginning is organized around key concepts. The science behind each concept is explained by: animation, image gallery, video interviews, problem, biographies, and links. DNAftb blog:

DNA from the Beginning -animated experiments DNA from the Beginning is organized around key concepts. The science behind each concept is explained by: animation, image gallery, video interviews, problem, biographies, and links. DNAftb blog: It's the season of hibernation, something I've always wished I could do. Oh, to wrap up in a ball, sleep away the winter, and wake to a beautiful spring day – like Bambi! Genetic errors identified in 12 major cancer types Examining 12 major types of cancer, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified 127 repeatedly mutated genes that appear to drive the development and progression of a range of tumors in the body. The discovery sets the stage for devising new diagnostic tools and more personalized cancer treatments. The research, published Oct. 17 in Nature, shows that some of the same genes commonly mutated in certain cancers also occur in seemingly unrelated tumors. For example, a gene mutated in 25 percent of leukemia cases in the study also was found in tumors of the breast, rectum, head and neck, kidney, lung, ovary and uterus.

DNA- The ins and outs! Watson and Crick's Paper Watson and Crick published a paper that described the complementary structure of DNA. This paper rocked the science world and illuminated the structure of DNA! An Overview of the Human Genome Project An Overview of the Human Genome Project What was the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings. Codon Bingo Instructions: 1. Fill out each of the blanks with an amino acid from the codon chart - they cannot use the same amino acid twice. There are 21 total amino acids and only 16 squares, so there will be a few not used at all. Amazing! Scientists: Our DNA is Mutating As We Speak! We Are Developing 12 Strands! A microscopic image of human chromosomes. Little Alfie Clamp has an 'extra arm' on one of his, in what is believed to be a world first.His condition left Alfie unable to see until he was three months old and his muscles were so weak he could not roll over on his own. He still suffers serious digestive problems and needs a cocktail of drugs every day to help his body absorb vital nutrients. He also suffers fits which sparked by high temperatures and metabolic problems stop him from eating or drinking. Since he was born, Alfie has been rushed to hospital six times - including twice just last month - when he stopped breathing. His parents even believed he was dying twice and were stunned when Alfie made a full recovery after spending time in hospital.

Supreme Court Nixes Patenting Human Genes The Justices have decided that isolated sequences of human DNA are not eligible for patent protection, but rules that artificial sequences can be patented. The United States Supreme Court has today (June 13) unanimously ruled that isolated human genes cannot be patented, but the Justices also ruled that synthetic DNA sequences—known as complimentary DNA (cDNA)—are eligible for protection. “A naturally occurring DNA segment is a product of nature and not patent eligible merely because it has been isolated,” wrote Justice Clarence Thomas, “but cDNA is patent eligible because it is not naturally occurring.” The decision throws out patents held by Utah-based Myriad Genetics on 2 genes—BRCA1 and BRCA2—that when mutated cause breast and other types of cancer. Researchers, physicians, and patients who sued Myriad are claiming victory because the ruling means that the company no longer has a monopoly on diagnostic tests based on these two genes.

Friends Have More DNA in Common Than Strangers People may unsuspectingly choose friends who have some DNA sequences in common with them, a new analysis finds. Researchers compared gene variations between nearly 2,000 people who were not biologically related, and found that friends had more gene variations in common than strangers. The study lends a possible scientific backing for the well-worn clichés, "We're just like family," or "Friends are the family you choose," the researchers said.

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